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  • To familiarize students with basic tissues and the extracellular matrices surrounding them: epithelium, connective tissues, including blood, bone and cartilage, muscles, and nerves.
  • To familiarize students with organs and the systemic arrangement of tissues performing a specific function, as of respiration, digestion, etc.


There will be a total of three exams, two in the first semester and one in the second semester. Each exam has a practical portion (slide identification) and a written portion (multiple choice). The lecturers submit most of the questions for the written portion.

Three "practice" quizzes and three "real" quizzes will be given during the course. The format of the quizzes will be practical in nature, and provide the student with samples of the type of questions that will be encountered during the major examinations.

During the quiz / practical, each slide will be shown for 75 seconds. Slides will not be shown for a second time as more mistakes are made when a student changes the answers.

The answer to slide identification must be precise. No partial credit will be given. "Alternative" answers, backed up by acceptable references, will be considered.

The SCHOOL-WIDE EXAMINATION POLICY is as follows: 1) As a rule, NO request for taking exams at other than scheduled times will be granted. 2) If a student believes that she/he is too ill to take a scheduled exam, written verification from the student's health care provider must be presented. In any event, the Course Director and the Student Affairs Office are to be informed about any problems BEFORE the examination takes place. Please see the Student Handbook for further details.

Grading Policy

The final grade will be based on a total of 100 possible points. The distribution is as follows: Quiz = 20 points each. Practical = 30 points each. Written = 50 points each.

The method of grading to be used is "Norm Referencing" also known as "grading on the curve". Standard deviation from the mean is used to establish grades above or below the mean for the class, which usually set in the B range (80%). Letter grades above or below the mean are established so a raw score for an examination or for the course of 0.5 or 1 standard deviation above the mean will be given a B+ or an A, for example.

If a curve is used and the mean raw score for the class is low, e.g. 75%, the letter grade may be "curved up", so that a 75% becomes a B.

If the class mean on an examination or a course is 80% or higher, the grade will not be "curved down" in such instances. That is, irrespective of the exact location of the mean above 80%, student will be given an A for grades of equal or greater than 90%, at least a B for grades of equal or greater than 80% to less than 90%, and at least a C for grades of equal to or greater than 70% to less than 80%, and at least a D for grades of equal to or greater than 65% to less than 70%. For grades less than 65% the student will receive a failing grade of F.


There are three reviews, one before each exam. Part of the review will involve projection slides presentation. The rest of the time can be used for review of the glass slides and general questions. More reviews can be arranged if needed.

Format of the Labs

During a laboratory session, the instructor will first use Kodachromes and/or the video-microscope to orient the students to the histological sections being examined. The students will then proceed to examine each section at greater detail on their own. The use of an atlas is an integral part of this process. Instructors will circulate among the students and answer questions.

Students that are prepared and actively look for/at structures under the microscope, and use the atlas, are those that get the most out of the lab.

A student that goes into the lab session "cold" may become frustrated. The laboratory session will also be used to discuss information that, due to time constraints, the lecturer was unable to cover.

Required Reading


  • Dellman and Eurell, (1998) Textbook of Veterinary Histology, 5th Edition. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
  • Bacha and Bacha (2000) Color Atlas of Veterinary Histology, 2nd edition. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins.
  • Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary, 2nd Edition, D.C. Blood and V.P. Studdent