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Zoological Medicine, Revised
G. Kaufman, DVM
Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University
Fall 2008

1. Avian Readings and Links

  • BirdLife International
    Global Partnership of conservation organisations that strives to conserve birds, their habitats and global biodiversity, working with people towards sustainability in the use of natural resources.

  • Association of Avian Veterinarians
    Advancing and promoting avian medicine and stewardship

  • Blood collection in birds – USGS (VIDEO)

  • Biological sample collection in birds – USGS - (VIDEO)

  • The Use of an External Skeletal Fixator-Intrall1edullary Pin Tie-in (ESF'-IM Fixator) for Treatll1ent of Longbone Fractures in Raptors by Patrick T. Redig. Chapter 21: Lumeij JT, Poffers J, Zoological Education Network. Raptor biomedicine III : including Bibliography of birds of prey. Lake Worth, Fla.: Zoological Education Network; 2000:476.

  • Cacciuttolo E, Rossi G, Nardoni S, Legrottaglie R, Mani P. Anatomopathological aspects of avian aspergillosis. Vet Res Commun. 2009.

1.1. Avian Influenza

  • Avian Influenza update - Journal of Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, July 2009, 32;4: 253-364.

  • Indonesian minister accuses West of 'exploiting' bird flu by Mark Forbes, February 20. 2008. The Age.

  • Infection Due to 3 Avian Influenza Subtypes in United States Veterinarians

  • WHO Factsheet on Avian Influenza (2004). ProMED-mail 20040116.0171. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • WHO avian influenza H5N1 timeline

  • National Wildlife Health Center Interactive Map for Avian influenza

  • OIE website on Avian Influenza

  • FAO recommendations for HPAI in Asia

  • FAO Empres Early Warning System site on Avian Influenza

  • EMPRES special issue on Avian Influenza, Jan-June 2004

  • United Nations (UN) response to bird flu website

  • Park MS, Steel J, Garcia-Sastre A, Swayne D, Palese P. Engineered viral vaccine constructs with dual specificity: avian influenza and Newcastle disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006;103(21):8203-8208.

  • China develops live AI vaccine in combo with Newcastles vaccine (2005). ProMED-mail 0051226.3685. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Challenges to vaccinating Chinas poultry for H5N1 Avian Influenza (2005). ProMED-mail 20051122.3388. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Epidemiological report on H5N1 avian influenza outbreak in a quarantine facility in the UK

  • Garrett L. The next pandemic? Foreign affairs. 2005;84(4):3-23.

  • Fowl play: The poultry industry's central role in the bird flu crisis

  • Avian Influenza cases in Connecticut (2001). ProMED-mail 20011107.2760. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Avian Influenza in Europe 2003 – highlights. ProMED-mail 20030304.0540. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Avian Influenza vaccine scandal (2004). ProMED-mail 20040105.0044. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Avian Influenza outbreak in Asia 2003-2004 - similarities with the 1918 epidemic. ProMED-mail. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Evolution of H5N1 Avian Influenza Viruses in Asia .

  • FAO/OIE/WHO Technical Consultation on Avian Influenza - Rome 2004

  • Avian Influenza outbreak in Asia - Poultry vaccination. ProMED-mail. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Avian Influenza outbreak in Asia 2003-2004 and Wild Birds. ProMED-mail. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Avian Influenza outbreak in Asia 2003-2004 - Infection in unusual species. ProMED-mail. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Collateral damage of Avian Influenza. ProMED-mail. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Avian Influenza H5N1 Hong Kong Initial Outbreak Summary.

  • Avian Influenza 2002 Hong Kong outbreak.

  • Avian Influenza in Ostrich (2004). ProMED-mail 20040922.2617. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Avian Influenza H5N1 found in Heron in Hong Kong (2004). ProMED-mail 20041103.2976. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Avian Influenza in Indonesia zoo birds (2005). ProMED-mail 20050919.2768. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza Virus in Smuggled Thai Eagles, Belgium

  • Avian Influenza - Ethical Reporting Discussion. ProMED-mail. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • H5N1 kills 3 captive civets 92005). ProMED-mail 20050826.2527. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • H5N1 spread to Russia and Kazhakstan (2005). ProMED-mail 20050811.2346. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • H5N1 makes it to Europe! (2005). ProMED-mail 20051014.2994. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Role of smuggling and the spread of avian influenza (2006). ProMED-mail 20060501.1264. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Smuggled bird parts into US from China (2006). ProMED-mail 20060714.1943. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Smuggled poultry continues to pose risk for spread of H5N1 from China (2007). ProMED-mail 20070427.1379. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Influenza research at the human and animal interface - WHO report

  • Smuggled Parrots may provide risk for spread of H5N1 from Ghana (2007). ProMED-mail 20070504.1453. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Avian Influenza H7N2 affects people in Wales outbreak (2007). ProMED-mail 20070601.1772. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Genetic forensics trace African strains of H5N1 (2007). ProMED-mail 20070729.2432. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Possible domestic waterfowl reservoir of H5N1 virus in Europe (2007). ProMED-mail 20071128.3842. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • EU Expert opinion on AI (2008). ProMED-mail 20080612.1862. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Jia B, Shi J, Li Y, et al. Pathogenicity of Chinese H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses in pigeons. Arch Virol. 2008;153(10):1821-1826.

  • Avian Zoonotic Diseases: Work Smart, Stay Safe - 90-min seminar (video)

  • Avian influenza H1N1 transmission from people to turkeys 2009). ProMED-mail 20090823.2978. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Munster VJ, Fouchier RA. Avian influenza virus: of virus and bird ecology. Vaccine. 2009;27(45):6340-6344.

1.1.1. Avian Influenza and the United States

1.1.2. Role of Wild Waterfowl on the Spread of Avian Influenza

  • H5N1 wild bird monitoring in the US .

  • Krauss S, Obert CA, Franks J, Walker D, Jones K, et al. (2007) Influenza in Migratory Birds and Evidence of Limited Intercontinental Virus Exchange. PLoS Pathog 3(11): e167. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.0030167.

  • Role of poultry movement in spread of avian influenza (2007). ProMED-mail 20070103.0017. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • International Scientific Conference on Avian Influenza and Wild Birds

  • Surveillance for avian influenza in wild birds in the EU (Press release from Rome Conference 2006). ProMED-mail 20060531.1522 0703. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Review of H5N1 wild bird research in Europe (2007). ProMED-mail 20070706.2155. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Olsen B, Munster VJ, Wallensten A, Waldenstrom J, Osterhaus AD, Fouchier RA. Global patterns of influenza a virus in wild birds. Science. 2006;312(5772):384-388.

  • Avian Influenza: are wild birds to blame. ProMED-mail 20040313.0703. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Normile D. Avian influenza. Are wild birds to blame? Science. 2005;310(5747):426-428.

  • Wetland International on Avian Flu and Wild Birds .

  • Avian influenza, wild waterfowl - China (05) (2005). ProMED-mail 20050628.1828. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Avian influenza, wild waterfowl - China (06) (2005). ProMED-mail 20050629.1833. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Avian Influenza & Wild Waterfowl - China (08) (2005). ProMED-mail 20050707.1922. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Chen H, Smith GJ, Zhang SY, et al. Avian flu: H5N1 virus outbreak in migratory waterfowl. Nature. 2005;436(7048):191-192

  • Epidemiology of avian influenza in migratory birds (2005). ProMED-mail 20050821.2463. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Avian Influenza – Waterfowl – Accurate reporting (2005). ProMED-mail 20050625.1786. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • AI suspected in Egret die-off in Guandong (2005). ProMED-mail 20050726.2164. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Early appearance of H5N1 in wild waterfowl in Russia? (2005). ProMED-mail r 20050801.2232. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • 2005 spread of H5N1 and migratory birds (2005). ProMED-mail 20050812.2354. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Siberian Hunters to stop the spread of Avian influenza??? (2005). ProMED-mail 20050819.2439. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • H5N1 confirmed in Mongolian wild waterfowl (2005). ProMED-mail 20050819.2443. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Comments on the significance of waterfowl spread of influenza (2005). ProMED-mail 20050901.2590. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Migratory birds and spread of influenza needs proof (2005). ProMED-mail 20050824.2492. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Lessons from Australia and NZ regarding the role of wild waterfowl (2005). ProMED-mail 20050906.2637. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • More on the role of wild waterfowl in the spread of H5N1 (2005). ProMED-mail 20050907.2657. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • List of threatened Eurasian wild waterfowl from Avian Influenza outbreak. Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals, CMS/UNEP.

  • Role of migratory birds in spread of influenza still controversial (2006). ProMED-mail 20060227.0638. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Susceptibility of North American Ducks and Gulls to H5N1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses .

  • Anatidae Migration in the Western Palearctic and Spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 Virus .

  • Hampered Foraging and Migratory Performance in Swans Infected with Low-Pathogenic Avian Influenza A Virus .

  • Movements of Birds and Avian Influenza from Asia into Alaska (2007). ProMED-mail 20070314.0893. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Spatial, Temporal, and Species Variation in Prevalence of Influenza A Viruses in Wild Migratory Birds .

  • Ecologic Immunology of Avian Influenza (H5N1) in Migratory Birds .

  • Special supplement to the Journal of Wildlife Diseases on Avian Influenza in wild birds. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. Vol. 43, No. 3 Supplement July 2007.

  • Pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in adult mute swans (2008). ProMED-mail 20080814.2517. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Avian influenza virus in water.

  • Characterization of Avian Influenza Viruses A (H5N1) from Wild Birds, Hong Kong, 2004–2008 .

  • Tamiflu found in rivers in Japan (2009). ProMED-mail 20091003.3439. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Experimental Infection of Swans and Geese with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1) of Asian Lineage .

  • Gilbert M, Xiao X, Pfeiffer DU, et al. Mapping H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza risk in Southeast Asia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2008;105(12):4769-4774.

  • Wild Ducks as Long-Distance Vectors of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1)

  • Happold JR, Brunhart I, Schwermer H, Stark KD. Surveillance of H5 avian influenza virus in wild birds found dead. Avian Dis. 2008;52(1):100-105.

1.1.3. Avian Influenza in Non-Avian Species

  • Avian Influenza and pathogenicity in mammals (2004). ProMED-mail 20040701.1751. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Avian Influenza H5N1 in cats (2006). ProMED-mail 20060114.0140. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Avian Influenza H5N1 in Naturally Infected Domestic Cat .

  • Avian Influenza and Cats - FAO.

  • Probable Tiger-to-Tiger Transmission of Avian Influenza H5N1 .

  • British Veterinary Association Policy Brief on AI in Cats and Other Mammals

  • Tigers dying from Avian Influenza in Asia by Sebastien Berger, 10/20/2004. The Spectator News Telegraph.

  • Tigers dying from Avian Influenza (2004). ProMED-mail 20041019.2838.0703. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Avian Influenza H5N1 in Tigers and Leopards .

  • Influenza Infection in Wild Raccoons .

  • Zhou J, Sun W, Wang J, et al. Characterization of the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus derived from wild pikas in China. J Virol. 2009;83(17):8957-8964.

  • Roberton SI, Bell DJ, Smith GJ, et al. Avian influenza H5N1 in viverrids: implications for wildlife health and conservation. Proc Biol Sci. 2006;273(1595):1729-1732.

1.2. Poultry Readings and Links

  • Atlas of Avian Diseases

  • Avian Necropsy Examination - USDA videos

  • Infectious Laryngotracheitis outbreak in North Carolina (2007). ProMED-mail 20041019.2838.0703. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Infectious Bursal Disease Outbreak (2004). ProMED-mail 20040520.1352. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Antibiotics in eggs (2004). ProMED-mail 20040417.1073. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Salmonella from chickens spreads through water. ProMED-mail. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Human salmonella risk from baby poultry (2007). ProMED-mail 20070409.1182. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Use of Adamantane and Neuraminidase Inhibitor Anti-influenza drugs in poultry in the US.

  • H5N1 confused with Psittacosis in commercial duck farm worker (2007). ProMED-mail 20071130.3868. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Bagnol B. Gender issues in small-scale family poultry production: Experiences with newcastle disease and highly pathogenic avian influenza control. Worlds Poult Sci J. 2009;65(2):231-240.

1.2.1. Newcastle Disease outbreaks

  • Deadly Newcastle disease outbreak in 2002-03 prompts heightened look at animal safety by Alicia Robinson and Paige Austin. June 29, 2008. The Press- Enterprise

  • APHIS site on Exotic Newcastle.

  • Spillover of Pigeon PMV1 to captive flocks (2006). ProMED-mail 20061016.2976. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Kim LM, King DJ, Guzman H, et al. Biological and phylogenetic characterization of pigeon paramyxovirus serotype 1 circulating in wild North American pigeons and doves. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46(10):3303-3310.