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Zoological Medicine, 2008
Avian Readings and Links, Part II
G. Kaufman, DVM
Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University

1. Avian Readings and Links, Part II

1.1. Wild Bird Readings and Links

  • Birds of North America - Searchable reference online

  • BirdLife International

  • American Bird Conservancy (ABC) report on Impacts of Feral and Free-ranging Cats on Bird Species of Conservation Concern

  • Association of Avian Veterinarians Resolution on Free-roaming Cats

  • Duck Viral Enteritis Outbreak - National Zoo (2005). ProMED-mail 20050602.1537.

  • Flamingo die-offs in East Africa. ProMED-mail.

  • Chlamydia outbreak and wildlife in Australia. ProMED-mail.

  • Probable Psittacosis Outbreak Linked to Wild Birds .

  • Zweifel D, Hoop R, Sachse K, Pospischil A, Borel N. Prevalence of Chlamydophila psittaci in wild birds-potential risk for domestic poultry, pet birds, and public health? European Journal of Wildlife Research. 2009:1-7.

  • Chlamydiosis, Zoo Penguins- USA (CA) (2005). ProMED-mail 20050506.1253.

  • Psittacine Pox threatens wild birds in New Zealand (2002). ProMED-mail 20021017.5577.

  • Pox outbreak kills wild penguins (2006). ProMED-mail 20060224.0611.

  • Disease concerns affect Crane Release (2003). ProMED-mail 20030207.0327.

  • Secondary Barbiturate Poisoning in Birds - USFWS Factsheet

  • Lightfoot TL. Organochlorine disaster in florida - 2 years later. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery. 2001;15(2):138-140.

  • Cormorant die-off in Florida (2004). ProMED-mail 20041124.3146.

  • Global warming and seabirds (2004). ProMED-mail 20040621.1652.

  • Salmonellosis in Wild Finches (2005). ProMED-mail 20050207.0422.

  • Canada Geese Die-off in Oregon (2005). ProMED-mail 20050204.0386.

  • Hawaiian bird declared extinct .

  • Trichomoniasis & Bird Feeders (NV) (2005). ProMED-mail 20050604.1562.

  • Trichomoniasis killing house sparrows, chaffinches and goldfinches in the UK (2006). ProMED-mail 20060915.2616.

  • Trichomoniasis in Arizona Raptors (2004). ProMED-mail 20040331.0873.

  • Tuttle AD, Andreadis TG, Frasca S,Jr, Dunn JL. Eastern equine encephalitis in a flock of African penguins maintained at an aquarium. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2005;226(12):2059-62, 2003.

  • EEE in wild birds (2005). ProMED-mail 20050925.2826.

  • Shearwater die-off in Florida (2007). ProMED-mail 20070622.2014.

  • Introduced snail linked to bird die-off (2007). ProMED-mail 20071027.3496.

  • Emerging Reovirus in Crows in US (2008). ProMED-mail 20080105.0064.

  • Bartholomew JL, Atkinson SD, Hallett SL, et al. Myxozoan parasitism in waterfowl. Int J Parasitol. 2008;38(10):1199-1207.

  • Murray M, Tseng F. Diagnosis and treatment of secondary anticoagulant rodenticide toxicosis in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis). J Avian Med Surg. 2008;22(1):41-46.

  • Donovan TA, Schrenzel M, Tucker TA, Pessier AP, Stalis IH. Hepatic hemorrhage, hemocoelom, and sudden death due to Haemoproteus infection in passerine birds: eleven cases. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2008;20(3):304-313.

  • Climate change threatens birds - IUCN 2008 bird redlist

  • Herring gulls face trans-fat troubles by Martin Mittelstaedt, Feb. 3. 2009 The Globe and Mail.

  • Balk L, Hagerroth PA, Akerman G, et al. Wild birds of declining European species are dying from a thiamine deficiency syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2009;106(29):12001-12006.

  • Field Manual of Wildlife Diseases: General Field Procedures and Diseases of Birds USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC)

  • Avian necropsy manual for biologists in remote refuges .

  • Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds (USGS)

  • New cirovirus found in gull die-off (2009). ProMED-mail 20091203.4124.

1.1.1. Avian Malaria

  • Plasmodium blood parasite found in endangered Galapagos penguins (Spheniscus mendiculus) . ProMED-mail 20040313.0703.

  • Benning TL, LaPointe D, Atkinson CT, Vitousek PM. Interactions of climate change with biological invasions and land use in the Hawaiian Islands: Modeling the fate of endemic birds using a geographic information system. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2002;99(22):14246-14249.

  • Pathogenicity, Serological Responses, and Diagnosis of Experimental and Natural Malarial Infections in Native Hawaiian Thrushes. ProMED-mail 20040313.0703.

  • Blood Parasites in Owls with Conservation Implications for the Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis). ProMED-mail 20040313.0703.

1.1.2. Vulture population declines

  • Update on Indian vulture situation - not rebounding. Indian vultures circling towards extinction by Debora MacKenzie, April 20, 2008. New Scientist.

  • Vulture Die-off and Anthrax (2000). ProMED-20000530.0867.

  • Oaks JL, Gilbert M, Virani MZ, et al. Diclofenac residues as the cause of vulture population decline in Pakistan. Nature. 2004;427(6975):630-633.

  • Vulture mortalities and effect on rabies epidemiology (2003). ProMED-mail 20030207.0329.

  • Vulture Die-off Promed collection (2000). ProMED-mail 20000530.0867.

  • Vulture Die-Off - India (Gujarat) 2005 Update. ProMED-mail 20050612.1644.

  • Shultz S, Baral HS, Charman S, et al. Diclofenac poisoning is widespread in declining vulture populations across the Indian subcontinent. Proc Biol Sci. 2004;271 Suppl 6:S458-60.

  • Swan G, Naidoo V, Cuthbert R, Green RE, Pain DJ, et al. (2006) Removing the Threat of Diclofenac to Critically Endangered AsiaVultures . PLoS Biol.4(3): e66. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.

  • Vulture numbers are cut to the bone by Robin McKie, July 16, 2006. The Observer Guardian.

  • Other scavenging birds susceptible to diclofenac (2006). ProMED-mail 20061110.3236.

  • Hussain I, Khan MZ, Khan A, Javed I, Saleemi MK. Toxicological effects of diclofenac in four avian species. Avian Pathol. 2008;37(3):315-321.

  • Markandya A, Taylor T, Longo A, Murty MN, Murty S, Dhavala K. Counting the cost of vulture decline-An appraisal of the human health and other benefits of vultures in India. Ecol Econ. 2008;67(2):194-204.

  • Recovery Efforts Not Enough For Critically Endangered Asian Vulture, September 10, 2008. ScienceDaily.

  • NEW threats to scavengers: Lemus JA, Blanco G. Cellular and humoral immunodepression in vultures feeding upon medicated livestock carrion. Proc Biol Sci. 2009;276(1665):2307-2313.

  • Naidoo V, Wolter K, Cromarty D, et al. Toxicity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to Gyps vultures: a new threat from ketoprofen. Biol Lett. 2009.

1.1.3. Avian Vacuolar Myelinopathy

  • Avian Vacuolar Myelinopathy - Etiology in Pest Plant Species? (2003). ProMED-mail 20031228.3156.

  • Avian Vacuolar Myelinopathy (2000). ProMED-mail 20000107.0016.

  • Larsen RS, Nutter FB, Augspurger T, et al. Clinical features of avian vacuolar myelinopathy in American coots. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002;221(1):80-85.

  • USGS/NWHC site on AVM

  • Birrenkott AH, Wilde SB, Hains JJ, et al. Establishing a food-chain link between aquatic plant material and avian vacuolar myelinopathy in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). J Wildl Dis. 2004;40(3):485-492.

  • Rocke TE, Thomas NJ, Augspurger T, Miller K. Epizootiologic studies of avian vacuolar myelinopathy in waterbirds. J Wildl Dis. 2002;38(4):678-684.

  • Rocke TE, Thomas NJ, Meteyer CU, et al. Attempts to identify the source of avian vacuolar myelinopathy for waterbirds. J Wildl Dis. 2005;41(1):163-170.

1.1.4. Avian Cholera/Pasteurellosis

  • Pasteurella outbreaks in cormorants (2004). ProMED-mail 20040106.0059.

  • Pasteurella outbreak in waterfowl in Utah (2004). ProMED-mail 20041106.3008.

  • Cholera outbreak in Snow Geese (2006). ProMED-mail 20060113.0127.

  • Avian cholera outbreak kills thousands of eiders on Nunavut island (2006). ProMED-mail 20061031.3119.

  • Cholera outbreak in Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge (2007). ProMED-mail 20070117.0223.

1.1.5. Botulism Outbreaks

  • Winter botulism outbreak in NY. ProMED-mail 20040313.0703.

  • Botulism in NJ waterfowl (2003). ProMED-mail 20030726.1833.

  • Botulism outbreak in Greece linked to Agricultural practices (2004). ProMED-mail 20041001.2707.

1.1.6. Lead poisoning and the California Condor recovery

1.1.7. Mycoplasma Conjunctivitis in Finches

1.2. Pet Bird Readings and Links

  • Association of Avian Veterinarians

  • World Parrot Trust

  • American Federation of Aviculture

  • American Emu Association

  • Emerging Disease in Budgies in the UK. ProMED-mail 20030620.1517.

  • West Nile virus report in a parakeet (2001). ProMED-mail 20011101.2701.

  • EEE effects emus in RI (2003). ProMED-mail 20030916.2342.

  • PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) toxicity - a potential cause of sudden death in pet birds and poultry.

  • Teflon Pan Article - Hearth & Home: Watched Pots by Elizabeth Larson, Sept/Oct 2004. Sierra Magazine.

  • Hoefer HL. A clinical approach to mycobacteriosis in pet birds. Exotic DVM. 2005;7(3):35-39.

  • Garner MM.Techniques and trends in the characterization of inflammatory disease in feather-picking birds. 2006 Proceedings American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.

  • Smuggled Parrots may provide risk for spread of H5N1 from Ghana (2007). ProMED-mail 20070504.1453.

  • Pet bird diseases threaten native Australian wildlife (2007). ProMED-mail 20070909.2977.

  • Obituary for Alex the Parrot by Benedict Carey, September 11, 2007. The New York Times.

  • Pillai SP, Suarez DL, Pantin-Jackwood M, Lee CW. Pathogenicity and transmission studies of H5N2 parrot avian influenza virus of Mexican lineage in different poultry species. Vet Microbiol. 2008;129(1-2):48-57.

  • Stanford M. The effect of UV-B lighting supplementation in African grey parrots. Exotic DVM. 2004;6(3):29-32.

1.2.1. Chlamydophila/Psittacosis

  • Chlamydia outbreak prompts euthanasia of entire collection (2003)? ProMED-mail 20030329.0782.1833.

  • Ramsay EC. The psittacosis outbreak of 1929-1930. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery. 2003;17(4):235-237.

  • Chlamydophila psittaci Transmission from Pet Birds to Humans .

  • Psittacosis at bird show sickens 18 people (2007). ProMED-mail 20071203.3891.

  • Petsmart pisttacosis outbreak (2007). ProMED-mail 20030726.1833.

  • Psittacosis outbreaks in the Netherlands and Brazil (2007). ProMED-mail 20071216.4045.

1.2.2. PDD and Avian bornavirus

1.3. West Nile virus emergence in North America

  • NBII on West Nile Virus .

  • USGS National Wildlife Health Center West Nile virus pages .

  • USGS West Nile Maps .

  • CDC West Nile Virus pages .

  • AAZV information about zoos and West Nile virus.

  • National Audubon Society site on effects on wild birds.

  • West Nile Virus kills polar bear in Toronto (2006). ProMED-mail 20061027.3081.

  • Dutton CJ, Quinnell M, Lindsay R, DeLay J, Barker IK. Paraparesis in a polar bear (Ursus maritimus) associated with West Nile virus infection. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2009;40(3):568-571.

  • West Nile Virus just Misses in Hawaii ??? (2004). ProMED-mail 20040928.2677.

  • Massachusetts Public Health West Nile page .

  • Cornell's Environmental Risk Analysis Program on West Nile.

  • Protocol for the Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Zoological Institutions.

  • West Nile Virus EID Issue 2001 .

  • West Nile Fever – a Reemerging Mosquito-Borne Viral Disease in Europe .

  • West Nile Virus Outbreak - Lessons for Public Health Preparedness.

  • West Nile virus: Detection, Surveillance, and Control. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2001; No. 951.

  • Role of Bird Migration in the Spread of West Nile Virus (2003). ProMED-mail 20031007.2512.

  • Effects of Mosquito Spraying on WNV and the Environment (2000). ProMED-mail 20001109.1964.

  • Ecological impact of West Nile virus (2003). ProMED-mail 20030103.0016.

  • Current list of species found positive for WNV .

  • West Nile virus in Alligators (2002). ProMED-mail 20021114.5797.

  • West Nile virus in unusual species (2001). ProMED-mail 20010930.2380.

  • West Nile virus report in a parakeet (2001). ProMED-mail 20011101.2701.

  • West Nile virus kills endangered thick-billed parrot. ProMED-mail.

  • West Nile virus in raptors (2002). ProMED-mail 20020912.5289.

  • West Nile virus found in birds in UK (2003). ProMED-mail 20030719.1772.

  • West Nile virus avian vaccine development (2002). ProMED-mail 20020206.3493.

  • West Nile Virus vaccine reactions in zoo birds (2003). ProMED-mail 20030703.1640.

  • Corvidae Feather Pulp and West Nile Virus Detection .

  • West Nile like virus kills birds in Austria (2004). ProMED-mail 20040827.2394.

  • LaDeau SL, Kilpatrick AM, Marra PP. West Nile virus emergence and large-scale declines of North American bird populations. Nature. 2007;447(7145):710-713.

  • Land Use and West Nile Virus Seroprevalence in Wild Mammals .

  • West Nile Virus Infection in Birds and Mosquitoes .

  • National Wildlife Health Center pages on West Nile virus .

  • Wild birds help scientists understand West Nile virus .

  • Tully TN et al. Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) Serologic Response to Equine West Nile Virus Vaccination. 2002 Proceedings AAV.

  • West Nile Virus just misses in Hawaii ??? (2004). ProMED-mail 20040928.2677.

  • Pauli AM, Cruz-Martinez LA, Ponder JB, et al. Ophthalmologic and oculopathologic findings in red-tailed hawks and Cooper's hawks with naturally acquired West Nile virus infection. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007;231(8):1240-1248.

  • LaDeau SL, Marra PP, Kilpatrick AM, Calder CA. West Nile virus revisited: Consequences for North American ecology. Bioscience. 2008;58(10):937-946.