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Tufts OpenCourseware
Author: Gretchen Kaufman, DVM

OCW Zoological Medicine 2008
Mammal, Part III - Ungulate Readings
G. Kaufman, DVM
Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University

1. Ungulate

Meningeal worm may threaten moose in Alaska (2004). ProMED-mail 20040404.0931.

Moose Die-off in Minnesota (2003). ProMED-mail 20030215.0393.

Pestivirus threatens chamois in the Pyrrenees (2005). ProMED-mail 20050827.2540.

Sumatran Rhinos critically threatened (2003). ProMED-mail 20031118.2863.

Guidelines for Prevention of Foot and Mouth Disease in Zoos.

West Nile Virus in deer confused with CWD, US (2002). ProMED-mail 20021116.5819.

Malignant Catarrhal Fever in exotic ungulates in NJ (2002). ProMED-mail 20020530.4368384.

EEE diagnosed in deer in Michigan (2005). ProMED-mail 20050925.2825.

Rhinderpest found in warthogs (2003). ProMED-mail 20030824.2135.

FMD in Elephants (Mar 2001).

Elephant Die-off in India. ProMED-mail 20020530.4368384.

Better off dead than captive bred? - elephants in captivity.

Necropsy of Wild Ungulates

Haigh JC, Mackintosh C, Griffin F. Viral, parasitic and prion diseases of farmed deer and bison. Rev Sci Tech. 2002;21(2):219-248.

Self-sustaining rabies outbreak in kudu antelope in Namibia (2006). ProMED-mail 20060518.1397.

FMD outbreak in endangered wild gazelle – 2007. ProMED-mail 20070324.1025.

Importance of wild boar in FMD epidemiology in Israel (2007). ProMED-mail 20070517.1571.

Vosloo W, Thompson PN, Botha B, Bengis RG, Thomson GR. Longitudinal study to investigate the role of impala (Aepyceros melampus) in foot-and-mouth disease maintenance in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2009;56(1-2):18-30.

Hasoksuz M, Alekseev K, Vlasova A, et al. Biologic, antigenic, and full-length genomic characterization of a bovine-like coronavirus isolated from a giraffe. J Virol. 2007;81(10):4981-4990.

New Device for Safe Deer Capture, August 10, 2008. ScienceDaily.

Elk feces linked to E.coli 0157 outbreak in children by Bill Scanlon. November 11, 2008. Rocky Mountain News.

Brooks JW, Jayarao BM. Management practices used by white-tailed deer farms in Pennsylvania and herd health problems. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008;232(1):98-104.

Wildebeest associated MCF infects cattle in Texas (2008). ProMED-mail 20080418.1396.

Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis across host species and European countries with evidence for transmission between wildlife and domestic ruminants .

1.1. Anthrax Reports

Anthrax kills elephants in Namibia (2008). ProMED-mail 20040328.0850.

Anthrax in Indian Elephants (2004). ProMED-mail 20040328.0850.

Anthrax in Zimbabwe (2004). ProMED-mail 20040914.2562.

Anthrax in Botswana (2004). ProMED- 20040920.2600.

Anthrax in cattle and deer in Texas (2004). ProMED-mail 20040829.2415.

Hippo die-off in Uganda (2004). ProMED-mail 20040823.2352.

Anthrax in Rhinos (2001). ProMED-mail 20010608.1122.

Anthrax in Wood Bison (2001). ProMED-mail 20010831.2078.

Anthrax, Zebras – Uganda (Lake Mburo National Park). ProMED-mail.

Anthrax in wildlife (including Elephants) in Namibia (2005). ProMED-mail 20050708.1939.

Anthrax in Texas involving deer (2005). ProMED-mail 20050709.1944.

Anthrax killing bison in South Dakota (2005). ProMED-mail 20050729.2211.

Anthrax, wildlife – South Africa (Kruger National Park) (2006). ProMED-mail 20060615.1662.

Anthrax, Wildlife - Namibia (Caprivi) (2006). ProMED-mail 20060615.1663.

Anthrax, Bovine - USA (Minnesota) (2006). ProMED-mail 20060615.1665.

Narrative from State veterinarian on anthrax outbreak in MN (2006). ProMED-mail 20060628.1790.

Wafula MM, Patrick A, Charles T. Managing the 2004/05 anthrax outbreak in Queen Elizabeth and Lake Mburo National Parks, Uganda. Afr J Ecol. 2008;46(1):24-31.

1.2. Chronic Wasting Disease

Chronic Wasting Disease - NWHC site

Chronic Wasting Disease Alliance

Gordon PM, Schutz E, Beck J, et al. Disease-specific motifs can be identified in circulating nucleic acids from live elk and cattle infected with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37(2):550-556.

2006 Annual Report of the Committee on Captive Wildlife and Alternative Livestock

APHIS Veterinary Services site

North American Elk Breeders Association information on CWD

CWD found in a wild moose in Colorado (2005). ProMED-mail 20050930.2865.

Chronic Wasting Disease found in a Moose in Wyoming (2008). ProMED-mail 20081018.3299.

CWD found in wild deer in West Virginia (2005). ProMED-mail 20050904.2615.

CWD in NY State (2005). ProMED-mail 20050331.0932.

FDA Issues Draft Guidance on Use of Material From Deer and Elk in Animal Feed .

New rapid test for CWD (2004). ProMED-mail 20040312.0690.

Environmental spread of CWD in mule deer (2004). ProMED-mail 20040519.1335.

CWD live animal testing (2001). ProMED-mail 20011223.3102.

CWD in Canada devastates herds (2001). ProMED-mail 20010723.1436.

Deer and Elk trade restricted due to CWD (2002). ProMED-mail 20020415.3958.

CWD Transmission Deer to Cattle (2001). ProMED-mail 20010314.0515.

CWD Epidemiology in Wisconsin (2003). ProMED-mail 20030707.1668.

CWD Environmental Spread 92004). ProMED-mail 20040519.1335.

CWD exported to South Korea (2004). ProMED-mail 20041125.3155.

Chronic Wasting Disease of Deer and Elk; Wyoming Game and Fish (VIDEO)

Miller MW, Williams ES. Prion disease: horizontal prion transmission in mule deer. Nature. 2003;425(6953):35-36.

Vercauteren KC, Burke PW, Phillips GE, et al. Elk use of wallows and potential chronic wasting disease transmission. J Wildl Dis. 2007;43(4):784-788.

CWD shows up in Michigan (2008). ProMED-mail 20080827.2671.

A prion disease of cervids: Chronic wasting disease .

Live Testing of Elk under research at Rocky Mountain National Park (2008). ProMED-mail 20080411.1333.

Implications of CWD getting into feedground elk. Wildlife disease debate heats up by Chris Merrill. October 20, 2008. Wyoming Star-Tribune online.

Miller MW, Swanson HM, Wolfe LL, Quartarone FG, Huwer SL, et al. (2008) Lions and Prions and Deer Demise . PLoS ONE 3(12): e4019. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.

Russo F, Johnson CJ, Johnson CJ, McKenzie D, Aiken JM, Pedersen JA. Pathogenic prion protein is degraded by a manganese oxide mineral found in soils. J Gen Virol. 2009;90(Pt 1):275-280.

Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Elk Antler Velvet .

Susceptibilities of Nonhuman Primates to Chronic Wasting Disease .

Tamguney G, Miller MW, Wolfe LL, et al. Asymptomatic deer excrete infectious prions in faeces. Nature. 2009;461(7263):529-532.

1.3. Brucellosis

DNA fingerprinting points to elk for brucella infections in cattle (2008). ProMED-mail 20080727.2288.

Recent Brucellosis Outbreaks in Wyoming (2004). ProMED-mail 20040110.0114.

Elk with Brucellosis again found in Yellowstone (2009). ProMED-mail 20090117.0196.

Kilpatrick AM, Gillin CM, Daszak P.Wildlife-livestock conflict: the risk of pathogen transmission from bison to cattle outside Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Applied Ecology 2009, 46, 476-485.

Brucellosis outbreak in cattle from elk in Idaho (2006). ProMED-mail 20060101.0006.

RP, Drew ML. Brucellosis in elk of eastern Idaho. J Wildl Dis. 2006;42(2):271-278.

1.4. Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreaks

2007 EHD outbreak spreads to Tennessee (2007). ProMED-mail 20070821.2739.

2007 EHD outbreak in Kentucky 92007). ProMED-mail 0070818.2701.

EHD outbreak in white tailed deer in Texas (2006). ProMED-mail 20060930.2801.

EHD outbreak in Indiana (2004). ProMED-mail 20041112.3061.

EHD virus affecting cattle in Ohio (2007). ProMED-mail 20070905.2922.

Bluetongue outbreak in antelope and whitetail deer in south eastern Montana (2007). ProMED-mail 20070922.3149.

Map of Virus Isolation Confirmed Hemorrhagic Disease 2007.

1.5. Emerging Wildlife Reservoirs of Tuberculosis

De Lisle GW, Bengis RG, Schmitt SM, O'Brien DJ. Tuberculosis in free-ranging wildlife: Detection, diagnosis and management. OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique. 2002;21(2):317-334.

Corner LA. The role of wild animal populations in the epidemiology of tuberculosis in domestic animals: how to assess the risk. Vet Microbiol. 2006;112(2-4):303-312.

Donnelly CA, Woodroffe R, Cox DR, et al. Impact of localized badger culling on tuberculosis incidence in British cattle. Nature. 2003;426(6968):834-837.

Badger vaccine trial for Bovine TB, UK. (2006). ProMED-mail 20060622.1724.

More discussion on epidemiology of TB in badgers and cattle in UK (2006). ProMED-mail 20061011.2915.

Culling badgers to control bovine TB, UK? (2006). ProMED-mail 20071217.4053.

Woodroffe R, Donnelly CA, Jenkins HE, et al. Culling and cattle controls influence tuberculosis risk for badgers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2006;103(40):14713-14717.

Woodroffe R, Gilks P, Johnston WT, et al. Effects of culling on badger abundance: Implications for tuberculosis control. J Zool. 2008;274(1):28-37.

Bovine Tuberculosis in Michigan

Palmer MV, Waters WR, Whipple DL. Shared feed as a means of deer-to-deer transmission of Mycobacterium bovis. J Wildl Dis. 2004;40(1):87-91.

Bovine TB now a problem in deer in Minnesota (2006). ProMED-mail 20061101.3131.

Bovine TB in people and their pets UK (2008). ProMED-mail 20080903.2751.

TB in Wisconsin Elk (2002). ProMED-mail 20020623.4574.

Tuberculosis found in a captive fallow deer in NY (2008). ProMED-mail 20081019.3306.

TB found in captive elk herd in Indiana (2009). ProMED-mail 20090628.2343.

Deer farming and bovine TB spread (2009). ProMED-mail 20090711.2480.

Brook RK, McLachlan SM. Transdisciplinary habitat models for elk and cattle as a proxy for bovine tuberculosis transmission risk. Prev Vet Med. 2009;91(2-4):197-208.

TB in deer and elk in Canada threatens cattle herds (2009). ProMED-mail 20091023.3641.

TB in Deer in New Zealand (2002). ProMED-mail 20021208.6015.

Corner LA, Stevenson MA, Collins DM, Morris RS. The re-emergence of Mycobacterium bovis infection in brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) after localised possum eradication. N Z Vet J. 2003;51(2):73-80.

Bovine Tuberculosis in Donana Biosphere Reserve: The Role of Wild Ungulates as Disease Reservoirs in the Last Iberian Lynx Strongholds

Aranaz A, De Juan L, Montero N, et al. Bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in wildlife in Spain. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42(6):2602-2608.

Bovine TB spreading across Africa (2006). ProMED-mail 20060915.2619.

Bovine TB threatens buffalo herds (2006). ProMED-mail 20061129.3381.

Mikota SK, Larsen RS, Montali RJ. Tuberculosis in elephants in North America. Zoo Biol. 2000;19(5):393-403.

Elephant TB in Nepal (2007). ProMED-mail 20070620.1990.

TB in elephants in Nepal – 2009. ProMED-mail 20090517.1844.

Elephant TB in South India (2008). ProMED-mail 20080910.2830.

Tuberculosis reservoir in wild boars in Spain (2005). ProMED-mail 20050707.1923.

1.6. Elephant Herpes Virus

Elephant herpes virus, US (2001). ProMED-mail 19990222.0233.

Elephant Herpes virus controversy (2007). ProMED-mail 20071208.3958.

Elephant Herpes virus virology/epidemiology, US (2007). ProMED-mail 20071217.4053.

Baby zoo elephant dies of herpes virus, Canada (2008). ProMED-mail 20081104.3460.

Wellehan JF, Johnson AJ, Childress AL, Harr KE, Isaza R. Six novel gammaherpesviruses of Afrotheria provide insight into the early divergence of the Gammaherpesvirinae. Vet Microbiol. 2008;127(3-4):249-257.

Elephant Herpes virus and Houston Zoo, US (2008). ProMED-mail 20081116.3622.

Elephant virus at St Louis Zoo has all zoos worried, US (2009). ProMED-mail 20090220.0712.

1.7. Bighorn Sheep and Pneumonia

Montana Bighorn dying from pneumonia, 2009. ProMED-mail 20091126.4055.

Pneumonia in Big Horn Sheep, Montana, 2002. ProMED-mail 20020322.3791.

Pneumonia kills big horn sheep in New Mexico, 2006. ProMED-mail 20060316.0824.

Bighorn battle could doom sheep ranchers - domestic vs. wild sheep by Eric Barker. Native American Times, March 09, 2009. Accessed [Internet] December 2009.

Clifford DL, Schumaker BA, Stephenson TR, et al. Assessing disease risk at the wildlife–livestock interface: A study of Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep. Biol Conserv. 2009;142(11):2559-2568.