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Tufts OpenCourseware
Author: Gretchen Kaufman, DVM

OCW Zoological Medicine 2008
Mammal, Part III - Primate Readings
G. Kaufman, DVM
Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University

1. Primates

  • Association of Primate Veterinarians

  • Top 25 Most Endangered Primates - Primates in Peril: 2006-2008.

  • Gillespie TR, Nunn CL, Leendertz FH. Integrative approaches to the study of primate infectious disease: implications for biodiversity conservation and global health. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2008;Suppl 47:53-69.

  • Human Hepatitis B origins (2000). ProMED- 20000506.0696.

  • Yellow Fever in SA monkeys (2001). ProMED- 20010702.1263.

  • Conservation concerns over yellow fever in SA monkeys (2008). ProMED- 20080214.0591.

  • Simian Foamy Virus and Blood Transfusions (2004). ProMED- 20041025.2889.

  • Foamy Virus in Humans (2004). ProMED- 20040319.0774.

  • Foamy virus jumps species barrier to humans for 1st time in Asia. ProMED- 20050720.2095.

  • New primate species discovered Science Daily News Archive. December 13, 2004

  • Gorilla Journal: Journal of Berggorilla & Regenwald Direkthilfe. Gorilla Journal No 30, June 2005

  • Primate Factsheets from PIN

  • Denver Zoo Capuchin dies of plague (Yersinia pestis) (2007). ProMED- 20070522.1647.

  • Cox-Singh J, Davis TM, Lee KS, et al. Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in humans is widely distributed and potentially life threatening. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46(2):165-171.

  • AVMA Urges Outlawing Trafficking of Chimps, Monkeys and Nonhuman Primates as Pets .

  • Ebola-Reston, Porcine – Philippines (2008). ProMED- 20081211.3896.

  • Szentiks CA, Kondgen S, Silinski S, Speck S, Leendertz FH. Lethal pneumonia in a captive juvenile chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) due to human-transmitted human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. J Med Primatol. 2009;38(4):236-240.

  • Global Warming Cycles Threaten Endangered Primate Species. ScienceDaily, October 29, 2009.

  • Rich SM, Leendertz FH, Xu G, et al. The origin of malignant malaria. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2009;106(35):14902-14907.

1.1. Herpes B Virus

1.2. Bushmeat and Primates

  • "Bushmeat" and the origin of HIV/AIDS - a Congressional Briefing

  • Bushmeat trade impacting primate populations (2004). ProMED-mail 20000411.0514.

  • Bushmeat trade in the UK (2004). ProMED-mail 20040905.2484.

  • Anthrax in Chimps and Gorillas (2005). ProMED-mail 20050326.0877.

1.3. Ebola Virus and Great Apes

  • Vogel G. Conservation. Scientists say Ebola has pushed western gorillas to the brink. Science. 2007;317(5844):1484.

  • Leroy EM, Kumulungui B, Pourrut X, et al. Fruit bats as reservoirs of Ebola virus. Nature. 2005;438(7068):575-576.

  • Central Africa: scientists find more signs of bats' role in Ebola, Congo DR (2007). ProMED-mail 20090530.2014.

  • Ebola Virus and primates – ProMED compilation. ProMED-mail.

  • More on Ebola virus and Great Apes. ProMED-mail.

  • Sullivan NJ, Sanchez A, Rollin PE, Yang ZY, Nabel GJ. Development of a preventive vaccine for Ebola virus infection in primates. Nature. 2000;408(6812):605-609.

  • Leroy EM, Rouquet P, Formenty P, et al. Multiple Ebola virus transmission events and rapid decline of central African wildlife. Science. 2004;303(5656):387-390.

  • Vogel G. Conservation biology. Can great apes be saved from Ebola? Science. 2003;300(5626):1645.

  • Whitfield J. Ape populations decimated by hunting and Ebola virus. Nature. 2003;422(6932):551.

  • Walsh PD, Abernethy KA, Bermejo M, et al. Catastrophic ape decline in western equatorial Africa. Nature. 2003;422(6932):611-614.

  • Ebola virus and gorillas news story. Mail&Guardianonline.

  • Sullivan NJ, Sanchez A, Rollin PE, Yang ZY, Nabel GJ. Development of a preventive vaccine for Ebola virus infection in primates. Nature. 2000;408(6812):605-609.

  • Bermejo M, Rodriguez-Teijeiro JD, Illera G, Barroso A, Vila C, Walsh PD. Ebola outbreak killed 5000 gorillas. Science. 2006;314(5805):1564.

  • Emerging infectious diseases and animal social systems

  • Strong JE, Wong G, Jones SE, et al. Stimulation of Ebola virus production from persistent infection through activation of the Ras/MAPK pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2008;105(46):17982-17987.

  • ittmann TJ, Biek R, Hassanin A, et al. Isolates of Zaire ebolavirus from wild apes reveal genetic lineage and recombinants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2007;104(43):17123-17127.

1.4. Ecotourism and Great Apes

  • Rwego IB, Isabirye-Basuta G, Gillespie TR, Goldberg TL. Gastrointestinal bacterial transmission among humans, mountain gorillas, and livestock in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Conserv Biol. 2008;22(6):1600-1607.

  • Kondgen S, Kuhl H, N'Goran PK, et al. Pandemic human viruses cause decline of endangered great apes. Curr Biol. 2008;18(4):260-264.

  • Gorillas, ecotourism and respiratory diseases, Africa (2005). ProMED-mail 20050715.2019.

  • Ape tourism and human diseases: How close should we get? www.

  • Gorilla deaths show tourists should keep their distance, July 9, 2005. New Scientist. Response from C. Whittier.

  • Promed comments from Chris Whittier (2005). ProMED-mail 20050731.2229.

  • Antibiotic resistance and wild chimpanzees, Uganda (2007). ProMED-mail 20070314.0893.

1.5. Primate Immunodeficiency Viruses

  • HIV 1 Origins (2003). ProMED-mail 20030614.1463.

  • P, Pybus OG, Wang B, Saksena NK, Salemi M, Vandamme AM. Tracing the origin and history of the HIV-2 epidemic. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003;100(11):6588-6592

  • Wolfe ND, Switzer WM, Carr JK, et al. Naturally acquired simian retrovirus infections in central African hunters. Lancet. 2004;363(9413):932-937.

  • Brandon F. Keele. Keele BF, Van Heuverswyn F, Li Y, et al. Chimpanzee reservoirs of pandemic and nonpandemic HIV-1. Science. 2006;313(5786):523-526.

  • J, Kraus MH, Ayouba A, et al. Origin and biology of simian immunodeficiency virus in wild-living western gorillas. J Virol. 2009;83(4):1635-1648.

  • Are Wild Chimpanzees Dying from AIDS? By Jon Cohen, February 10, 2009. ScienceNOW Daily News

  • Dating the Age of the SIV Lineages That Gave Rise to HIV-1 and HIV-2

  • SIV, chimpanzee - Tanzania: clinical AIDS-like disease (2009). ProMED-mail 20090724.2622.

  • Keele BF, Jones JH, Terio KA, et al. Increased mortality and AIDS-like immunopathology in wild chimpanzees infected with SIVcpz. Nature. 2009;460(7254):515-519.

  • A new human immunodeficiency virus derived from gorillas. Plantier JC, Leoz M, Dickerson JE, et al. A new human immunodeficiency virus derived from gorillas. Nat Med. 2009;15(8):871-872.

  • Van Heuverswyn F, Li Y, Neel C, et al. Human immunodeficiency viruses: SIV infection in wild gorillas. Nature. 2006;444(7116):164.