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Author: Gretchen Kaufman, DVM

OCW Zoological Medicine 2008
Mammal, Part III - Carnivore Readings
G. Kaufman, DVM
Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University

1. Carnivores

  • Myers DL, Zurbriggen A, Lutz H, Pospischil A. Distemper: not a new disease in lions and tigers. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1997;4(2):180-184.

  • Roelke ME, Pecon-Slattery J, Taylor S, et al. T-lymphocyte profiles in FIV-infected wild lions and pumas reveal CD4 depletion. J Wildl Dis. 2006;42(2):234-248.

  • FeLV in Florida Panthers (2004). ProMED-mail 20041003.2722. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Cougar parasite may influence behavior (2004). ProMED-mail 20040425.1152. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Plague in cougars in Wyoming (2006). ProMED-mail 20061215.3523. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Plague in Mountain Lion kills biologist.

  • Mountain lion dies of plague (2008). ProMED-mail 20080522.1694. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Wild Cougar with FIP (2000). ProMED-mail 20000229.0279. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • FIV in Lions in Uganda (2000). ProMED-mail 20000510.0709. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Dybas CL. Infectious diseases subdue serengeti lions. Bioscience. 2009;59(1):8-13.

  • Pecon-Slattery J, Troyer JL, Johnson WE, O'Brien SJ. Evolution of feline immunodeficiency virus in Felidae: implications for human health and wildlife ecology. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2008;123(1-2):32-44.

  • Pecon-Slattery J, McCracken CL, Troyer JL, et al. Genomic organization, sequence divergence, and recombination of feline immunodeficiency virus from lions in the wild. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:66.

  • Cytauxzoon in Bobcats (2000). ProMED-mail 20000612.0952. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Baylisascaris from Raccoons, US (2002). ProMED-mail 20020108.3197. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Baylisascaris affects a child in Canada (2005). ProMED-mail 20061215.3523. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Canine Distemper virus in Raccoons, US (2000). ProMED- 20000908.1538. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Lion contracts TSE from tainted British beef (2000). ProMED-mail 20001115.1997. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Feline spongiform encephalopathy found in a zoo cat (2002). ProMED-mail 20020731.4902. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Feline spongiforme encephalopathy in a cheetah (2007). ProMED-mail 20070913.3038. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • TB in wild African lions (2001). ProMED-mail 20010116.0128. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Badgers in Britain and TB (2003). ProMED-mail 20031105.2745. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Clubb R, Mason G. Animal welfare: captivity effects on wide-ranging carnivores. Nature. 2003;425(6957):473-474.

  • Civets and SARS (2004). ProMED-mail 20041020.2842. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Martina BE, Haagmans BL, Kuiken T, et al. Virology: SARS virus infection of cats and ferrets. Nature. 2003;425(6961):915

  • Parvovirus in Yellowstone wolf pups (2006). ProMED-mail 20060108.0069. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • The Incredible Shrinking Polar Bears by Jim Morrison. National Wildlife Oct/Nov 2004 vol. 42 no. 6.

  • Grizzly Bear Conservation in the Y2Y Region.

  • Trichinellosis acquired by hunters from bear meat (2006). ProMED-mail 20060518.1404. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Trichinellosis in canada: background (2006). ProMED-mail 20060520.1429. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Trichinellosis from badger meat (2009). ProMED-mail 20091105.3821. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • West Nile Virus kills polar bear in Toronto (2006). ProMED-mail 20061027.3081. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Dutton CJ, Quinnell M, Lindsay R, DeLay J, Barker IK. Paraparesis in a polar bear (Ursus maritimus) associated with West Nile virus infection. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2009;40(3):568-571.

  • Black Bear shot in Athol by George Barnes, July 13, 2007. Worcester Telegram and Gazette.

  • Zhang B, Une Y, Fu X, et al. Fecal transmission of AA amyloidosis in the cheetah contributes to high incidence of disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2008;105(20):7263-7268.

  • Mech LD, Goyal SM, Paul WJ, Newton WE. Demographic effects of canine parvovirus on a free-ranging wolf population over 30 years. J Wildl Dis. 2008;44(4):824-836.

  • A Serological Survey of Infectious Disease in Yellowstone National Park’s Canid Community .

  • New Virus Killer at the Zoo - Equine herpes infects Polar Bear - see also EID article – by Matt Potter, December 17, 2008. San Diego Reader.

  • New Hosts for Equine Herpesvirus 9 – EID.

  • Dybas CL. Infectious diseases subdue serengeti lions. Bioscience. 2009;59(1):8-13.

  • Millan J, Candela MG, Palomares F, et al. Disease threats to the endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus). Vet J. 2009;182(1):114-124.

1.1. Avian Influenza in Non-Avian Species

1.2. Sea Otter Mortalities

  • US Fish & Wildlife Southern Sea Otter Stock Assessment 2008

  • Sea otters dying in California (2003). ProMED- 20030508.1140. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Sea Otters deaths 2004. ProMED- 20040417.1071. http://www.promedmail.org.

  • Dabritz HA, Miller MA, Atwill ER, et al. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii-like oocysts in cat feces and estimates of the environmental oocyst burden. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007;231(11):1676-1684.

  • Miller MA, Grigg ME, Kreuder C, et al. An unusual genotype of Toxoplasma gondii is common in California sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) and is a cause of mortality. Int J Parasitol. 2004;34(3):275-284.

  • Kreuder C, Miller MA, Jessup DA, et al. Patterns of mortality in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) from 1998-2001. J Wildl Dis. 2003;39(3):495-509.

  • Hanni KD, Mazet JA, Gulland FM, et al. Clinical pathology and assessment of pathogen exposure in southern and Alaskan sea otters. J Wildl Dis. 2003;39(4):837-850.

  • Miller MA, Gardner IA, Kreuder C, et al. Coastal freshwater runoff is a risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Int J Parasitol. 2002;32(8):997-1006.

  • Jessup DA, Miller MA, Kreuder-Johnson C, et al. Sea otters in a dirty ocean. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007;231(11):1648-1652.

  • Conrad PA, Miller MA, Kreuder C, et al. Transmission of Toxoplasma: clues from the study of sea otters as sentinels of Toxoplasma gondii flow into the marine environment. Int J Parasitol. 2005;35(11-12):1155-1168.

  • Johnson CK, Tinker MT, Estes JA, et al. Prey choice and habitat use drive sea otter pathogen exposure in a resource-limited coastal system. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2009;106(7):2242-2247.