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Author: Gretchen Kaufman, DVM

Zoological Medicine 2008
Amphibian Readings and Links for Part I
G. Kaufman, DVM
Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University

1. Amphibian Readings and Links for Part I

  • Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation
    Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation (PARC) is an inclusive partnership dedicated to the conservation of the herpetofauna--reptiles and amphibians--and their habitats.

  • Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians
    Group promotes conservation and humane treatment of all reptilian and amphibian species through education, captive breeding, and habitat preservation.

  • Herpetological Conservation & Biology journal - open access
    Peer-reviewed journal publishing original research, reviews, perspectives and correspondence on the life history ecology, management and conservation of amphibians and reptiles

  • Amphibian deformities - parasitic etiology? US (2002). ProMED-mail 20020422.4012. <>. Accessed December 2008.

  • Frog Die-off in the UK (2004). ProMED-mail 20040912.2542. <>. Accessed December 2008.

  • Use of Amphibians as Indicators of Ecosystem Restoration Success. October 2004. USGS. Available at

  • Gresens J. An introduction to the mexican axolotl (ambystoma mexicanum). Lab Anim. 2004;33(9):41-47.

  • Royal LW, Grafinger MS, Lascelles BD, Lewbart GA, Christian LS. Internal fixation of a femur fracture in an american bullfrog. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007;230(8):1201-1204.

  • Glista DJ, DeVault TL, DeWoody JA. Vertebrate road mortality predominantly impacts amphibians. Herpetological Conservation and Biology. 2008;3(1):77-87.

1.1. Amphibian Declines and Chytridiomycosis

  • Wake DB, Vredenburg VT. Colloquium paper: Are we in the midst of the sixth mass extinction? A view from the world of amphibians. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105(Suppl 1):11466-11473.

  • Chytrid fungus found in the UK (2005). ProMED-mail 20050916.2741. <>. Accessed December 2008.

  • Daszak P et al. Emerging Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Population Declines. CDC Emerging Infectious Diseases. Accessible at

  • Mazzoni R et al. Emerging Pathogen of Wild Amphibians in Frogs (Rana catesbeiana) Farmed for International Trade. CDC Emerging Infectious Diseases. Accessible at

  • Daszak P, Cunningham AA, Hyatt AD. Infectious disease and amphibian population declines. (special issue: Amphibian declines: Untangling the complexity). Divers Distrib. 2003;9(2):141-150.

  • Muths E, Stephen Corn P, Pessier AP, Earl Green D. Evidence for disease-related amphibian decline in colorado. Biological Conservation. 2003;110(3):357-365.

  • Johnson PTJ, Chase JM, Dosch KL, et al. Aquatic eutrophication promotes pathogenic infection in amphibians. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2007;104(40):15781-15786.

  • Berger L et al. Chytridiomycosis causes amphibian mortality associated with population declines in the rain forests of Australia and Central America. Population Biology. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:9031-9036 (1998).

  • Hanselmann R, Rodriguez A, Lampo M, et al. Presence of an emerging pathogen of amphibians in introduced bullfrogs rana catesbeiana in venezuela. Biological Conservation. 2004;120(1):115-119.

  • Climate change and outbreaks of amphibian chytridiomycosis. Proc. R. Soc. B (2007) 274, 253–260. Access here

  • Weldon C, du Preez LH, Hyatt AD, Muller R, Speare R. Origin of the amphibian chytrid fungus. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2004 Dec [December 2008]. Available from

  • Map (Global Distribution) of chytrid fungus –

  • Global Amphibian Assessment on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at

  • Chytrid fungus found in Japanese pet frogs (2007). ProMED-mail 20070113.0176. <>. Accessed December 2008.

  • Chytrid fungus found in introduced wild bull frogs in Japan (2007). ProMED-mail 20070613.1924. <>. Accessed December 2008.

  • Chytrid fungus also threatening Platypus - Connolly JH, Canfield PJ, Obendorf DL. Gross, histological and immunohistochemical features of mucormycosis in the platypus. Journal of Comparative Pathology. 2000;123(1):36-46.

  • Chytrid fungus also threatens Platypus in Tasmania – World's oddest creature at risk from killer fungus. By Kathy Marks in Sydney. 14 January 2007. The Independent World [internet]

  • Down to the last croak. By Greg Roberts. January 5, 2008. The Australian. [internet]. Accessed February 2009.

  • Raffel TR, Bommarito T, Barry DS, Witiak SM, Shackelton LA. Widespread infection of the eastern red-spotted newt (notophthalmus viridescens) by a new species of amphibiocystidium, a genus of fungus-like mesomycetozoan parasites not previously reported in north america. Parasitology. 2008;135(2):203-215.

  • Riding the Wave: Reconciling the Roles of Disease and Climate Change in Amphibian Declines Lips KR, Diffendorfer J, Mendelson III JR, Sears MW PLoS Biology Vol. 6, No. 3. Accessed February 2009.

  • Tufts University (2008, April 18). Early Exposure To Common Weed Killer Impairs Amphibian Development. ScienceDaily [internet]. Accessed February 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.comĀ­ /releases/2008/04/080416091015.htm. (Tufts research)

  • Woodhams DC, Kilburn VL, Reinert LK, et al. Chytridiomycosis and amphibian population declines continue to spread eastward in panama. EcoHealth. 2008:1-7.

  • Amphibian threats from climate change

  • Walker SF, Bosch J, James TY, et al. Invasive pathogens threaten species recovery programs. Current Biology. 2008;18(18):R853-R854.

  • Ecosystem-level Consequences of Frog Extinctions. ScienceDaily. Accessed February 2009,

  • Rohr JR, Schotthoefer AM, Raffel TR, et al. Agrochemicals increase trematode infections in a declining amphibian species. Nature. 2008;455(7217):1235-1239.

  • Rohr JR, Raffel TR, Romansic JM, McCallum H, Hudson PJ. Evaluating the links between climate, disease spread, and amphibian declines. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2008;105(45):17436-17441.

  • Sánchez D, Chacón-Ortiz A, León F, Han BA, Lampo M. Widespread occurrence of an emerging pathogen in amphibian communities of the venezuelan andes. Biological Conservation. 2008;141(11):2898-2905.