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Author: Gretchen Kaufman, DVM
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OCW Zoological Medicine 2008
Zoo Animal Medicine (2009)
G. Kaufman, DVM
Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University

1. Zoo Management

1.1. The Mission

  • Education

  • Research

  • Conservation

  • Entertainment

1.2. Zoo Administration

  • Funding base - Public vs. Private

  • Community role

  • Veterinarians position

  • Support organizations - AZA, SSP, ISIS, etc

2. Captive Animal Circumstances

  • Animal acquisition and disposition (surplus, trading, selling?)

  • Cage/enclosure design - a continual renewal process

  • USDA and AZA input

  • Keeper interactions, target training to facilitate movement and treatment

3. Role of the Veterinarian - many hats

  • Animal health - preventative medicine emphasis

  • Human health and safety - zoonotic diseases, public health & physical safety issues

  • Administrative role?

  • Curatorial role?

  • External role - AAZV, communication with colleagues

  • Public image - role in high profile cases and in zoo marketing

  • Conflicts - inadequate funding for resources, inadequate consultation/respect for input from administration, relationship with curatorial/keeper staff

  • Positives - working with unusual species, stable patient population, scientific contribution, opportunity for field study

Consultation
Consultation

4. Target Issues in Zoo Medicine

  • Funding for animal health services

  • Resistance to standard quarantine procedures

  • Reluctance to fund preventative medical issues

  • Medical decisions influenced by external concerns

  • Conflicts over enclosure design

5. Support Resources and Continuing Education

5.1. Professional organizations

Association of Avian Veterinarians http://www.aav.org/

Association of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians http://www.arav.org/

American Association of Zoo Veterinarians http://www.aazv.org/

Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians http://www.aemv.org/vetlist.cfm

5.2. Continuing education resources

Annual conferences of professional organizations above

North American Veterinary Conference, Western States Veterinary Conference, etc.

5.3. Formalized Training/Board Certification

5.3.1. Internships and Residencies (selected)

There are both academic centered and zoo centered residencies available in zoological medicine. A complete list is maintained on the AAZV website http://www.aazv.org/displaycommon.cfm?an=1&subarticlenbr;=337. . Some of these are listed below.

5.3.2. Board Certification

American College of Zoo Veterinarians http://www.aczm.org/

6. References and Resources

6.1. Books and Journals

American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Infectious Disease Reviews . 1991-current.

Fowler, Murray E. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine . W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, c1986. Part 1 General Information.

Fowler, Murray E. Zoo and wild animal medicine: current therapy 3. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA. c1999. Part I General Topics.

Fowler, Murray E. Zoo and wild animal medicine: current therapy 4 . W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA. c1993. Part I General Topics.

Wild Mammals in Captivity: principles and techniques. Devra G. Kleiman, et al. (ed.). University of Chicago Press, 1996.

6.2. Websites

International Species Information System https://www.isis.org/

American Zoo and Aquarium Association http://www.aza.org/

American Association of Zoo Veterinarians http://www.aazv.org/

Guidelines for Zoo and Aquarium Veterinary Medical Programs and Veterinary Hospitals , prepared by the Veterinary Standards Committee, American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, 1998.

Foreign Animal Diseases Gray Book. http://www.usaha.org/pubs/