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Author: Colin M. Gillin, D.V.M.
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OCW Zoological Medicine 2008
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenges: Mechanical and Chemical Restraint of Wildlife (2007)
C. Gillin, DVM
Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University

1. Before you start…

  • Consult peers and evaluate protocol

  • Legal requirements

  • Minimize animal handling

  • Know your animal

  • Use technology and cutting edge resources

  • Know your handling procedure

  • Know your equipment

  • Record procedure on field forms

  • Prepare ahead for the difficult issues

    • Euthanasia

    • Non-target species captures

    • Media

1.1. Preliminary Planning

  • Purpose of capture

  • Type of terrain or escape cover

  • Type of animal

  • Condition of animal

  • Emotional state of animal

  • Safety equipment

  • Temperature affecting animal

  • Time of day

  • Appropriateness of drugs

  • Physical or chemical restraint

  • Available assistance

1.2. Safety Considerations

  • Human

  • Animal

  • Success of operation

  • Full attention to animal

1.3. Other Considerations

  • Regulatory

  • Social

  • Medical

  • Economic

  • Political

1.4. Animal Handling

  • Safety

  • Work site - ground cloth

  • Eye cover - eye ointment

  • Sound

  • Touch

  • Body position

1.5. Chemical vs. Physical Capture

  • Skill of handlers

  • Available facilities

  • Species involved

  • Advantages of each alternative

  • Physical Capture: less variable, quick procedure

  • Chemical capture: reduce physiologic and psychological stress, safety issues, analgesia

2. Mechanical Restraint

The person capturing or administering drugs to a wild animal assumes the responsibility for the life of that animal!

2.1. Prior to Capture

  • Purpose - is it justified?

  • Type of animal

  • Type of terrain or escape cover

  • Condition of animal

  • Emotional state of the animal

  • Safety equipment available

  • Temperature affecting the animal

  • Time of day

  • Which drug(s) would be most effective?

  • Would only physical restraint be better?

  • Do you have assistance and professional support?

2.2. Physical Restraint Equipment

  • Ropes

  • Tie-down straps

  • Gloves

  • Tape

  • Eye covers

  • Hobbles

Leather gloves commonly used for restraint of primates. The leather DOES NOT provide complete protection from most animals.
Leather gloves commonly used for restraint of primates. The leather DOES NOT provide complete protection from most animals.

California Big Horn sheep, Ovis canadensis californiana, were kept calm by applying a mask or eye covering and hobbling their feet with leather straps
California Big Horn sheep, Ovis canadensis californiana, were kept calm by applying a mask or eye covering and hobbling their feet with leather straps

Physical restraint only is used to capture and transport Big horn sheep in California.

Close-up of restraint techniques for California big horn sheep. This animal was not sedated. Radio collars were placed during processing to track animals after translocation.
Close-up of restraint techniques for California big horn sheep. This animal was not sedated. Radio collars were placed during processing to track animals after translocation.

2.2.1. Snare Poles

  • Any rope, cable, wire or monofilament

  • Pipe or pole

  • From small mammals and birds to rhinos

  • Ketch-All Pole

  • Whitney Restraint Pole

  • Graspers

2.2.2. Snares

  • Less impact than leghold traps

  • Aldrich foot snares- black bears

  • Lembeck leg snare- for foxes, bobcats and coyotes

  • Foot snares- ungulates

  • Ashcraft snare- migrating deer

  • Bal-Chatri or hoop (Phi Trap)- raptors

  • Neck snares- coyotes and other carnivores

2.2.3. Leghold or GinTraps

  • 'Soft-Catch' version

  • 'Tranquilizer tabs' available

  • Purse-Jawed traps/Bailey or Hancock traps - aquatic mammals

2.2.4. Traps

  • National Live Trap

  • Tomahawk

  • Havahart

  • Sure Catch

  • Sherman Traps

  • Barrel Traps (Rudolph traps)- small carnivores

  • Culvert traps- bears

  • Large box traps/giant "Havahart-style"- wild pigs, deer

  • Clover Traps- deer, elk

  • Panel Traps

  • Corral Traps

  • Trapsite transmitters

A collection of different sizes and styles of nets provide necessary capture options in a typical oological setting. Netting is an appropriate method of capture for many small to medium primates.
A collection of different sizes and styles of nets provide necessary capture options in a typical oological setting. Netting is an appropriate method of capture for many small to medium primates.

2.2.5. Nets

  • Mesh size, material, shape

  • Linear Drive-Nets

  • Drop-Nets

  • Jump-Nets

  • Cannon or Rocket-Nets

  • Net-Gun

2.2.6. Stationary Corral Traps or Bomas

  • Funnel or Drive Traps

  • Chutes and Squeezes

  • Recovery Crates

3. Chemical Restraint

3.1. Background

3.1.1. It all began with bears…

  • Funny honey 1820's

  • Chloral hydrate

  • Broken teeth and nose rings

3.1.2. The Age of Discovery – 1850's-1950

  • Alpha-chloralose

  • Chloral hydrate

  • Chloroform

  • Ether

  • Sodium pentobarbital

  • IV, IP, IM, Oral

3.1.3. The Paralytic Era – 50's and 60's

  • Paraldehyde

  • Curare

  • Nicotine

  • Succinyl choline

  • Flaxidil on a drill

3.1.4. Dawn of Remote Injection

  • Crossman

  • Crockford and Hayes

  • Palmer

3.1.5. The 70's and 80's

  • Xylazine

  • Ketamine

  • Phencyclidine

  • Etorphine

  • Nalorphine

  • Diprenorphine

3.1.6. The 90's and Beyond

  • Age of designer neuropharmaceuticals

  • Targeted agonists and antagonists

  • Long acting neuroleptic

3.1.7. Agonist/Antagonists

  • A3080/nalmephene

  • Carfentanil/naltrexone

  • Medetomidine/atipamezole

The Perfect Drug

Safe
Low volume
Reversible
Rapid acting
Anxiolytic and analgesic

NO side effects
Non-narcotic
Approved for food animals
Inexpensive
No human safety hazard

3.2. Legal Dimensions

  • Need FDA approval & License from DEA

  • Extra-label use

  • Experimental drugs under Investigational New Animal Drug File (INAD)

3.2.1. Drug Schedules

[II-IV Substances have decreasing abuse liabilities (II is the highest) and approved medical use]

3.2.1.1. I

  • Substances have a high abuse liability and no approved medical use

    • Heroin, LSD, THC, marijuana, peyote, mescaline

3.2.1.2. II

  • Phencyclidine; Codeine; Amphetamines; Cocaine

3.2.1.3. Special II

  • Potent narcotics and short-acting barbiturates

    • Etorphine/Diprenorphine, Carfentanil, Fentanyl/Droperidol

3.2.1.4. III

  • Potent narcotics and short-acting barbiturates

    • Etorphine/Diprenorphine, Carfentanil, Fentanyl/Droperidol

3.2.1.5. IV

  • Drugs are dangerous but less potential abuse

    • Diazepam

3.2.1.6. V

  • Substances have a recognized abuse liability (and approved medical uses) but are generally not regulated (e.g., they are available without prescription)

3.3. Preparation for Chemical Restraint

Successful anesthesia ends with careful planning.

  • Environment

  • Equipment

  • Expectations

  • Evaluation of drugs

3.3.1. Environmental Factors

  • Distance/Dart/Drug/Damage equation

  • Terrain - fences, falls, water, visibility

  • Calendar and clock - time of year/time of day

3.3.2. Drug Delivery Systems

  • Syringe Pole (jab stick)

  • Dart Delivery Systems

  • Internal powder charges

    • Palmer Cap-Chur Equipment

    • Pneu-Dart

Disposable remote injection darts for use with blow pipes or air powered delivery systems.
Disposable remote injection darts for use with blow pipes or air powered delivery systems.

  • Air-pressured Charges

    • Distinject Injectors

    • Dan-Inject

    • Telinject

    • Blow Pipe

Palmer pistol is an older dart delivery system powered by gun powder charges.
Palmer pistol is an older dart delivery system powered by gun powder charges.

This is a typical high-end air powered remote injection rifle for wildlife immobilization in either captive or field conditions.
This is a typical high-end air powered remote injection rifle for wildlife immobilization in either captive or field conditions.

The simplest and least technical remote injection systems include the stick pole and human-powered blow pipe. These are frequently used in captive animal settings (zoo) for delivery of anesthestics, vaccines and other medications.
The simplest and least technical remote injection systems include the stick pole and human-powered blow pipe. These are frequently used in captive animal settings (zoo) for delivery of anesthestics, vaccines and other medications.

3.3.3. Monitoring

  • Physical exam first

  • TPR every 5 minutes

  • Pulse oximetry

  • Be sterile

  • Treat injuries

  • Procedures (weigh, measure, mark, collect)

Cardiovascular support and monitoring should be performed during anesthetic procedures in elephants whenever possible.
Cardiovascular support and monitoring should be performed during anesthetic procedures in elephants whenever possible.

3.3.4. Drug Selection

  • Induction time

  • Importance of reversibility

  • Other anesthesia objectives

  • Species

  • Cost?

3.4. The Drugs

3.4.1. Opioids

Opioids

Opiod Antagonists

Etorphine (M-99)

Diprenorphine HCL (M50-50)

Carfentanil

Naloxone

A3080

Naltrexone*

Nalmafene

  • Central nervous system depression

  • Used alone or in combination with neuroleptics to avoid excitement

  • Rapid induction

  • Wide safety margin, predictable

  • Good analgesic properties

  • Reversible

  • Low dose volume

  • Controlled narcotics

  • Expensive

3.4.1.1. Clinical Signs

  • Ataxia, incoordination

  • High stepping

  • Visual impairment

  • Loss of fear of humans or objects

  • Animal may stay on feet or collapse

3.4.1.2. Side Effects

  • Excitation, running, pacing, walking

  • Vomiting

  • Respiratory depression

  • Muscle tremors and rigidity

  • Hypertension, hypotension

  • Hyperthermia, hypothermia

3.4.1.3. Disadvantages

  • Toxic to humans at low doses

  • Major respiratory depressants

  • Re-narcotization after antagonism

  • Prolonged, excitatory state prior to induction

  • Alter thermoregulation

  • Poor muscle relaxation

3.4.1.4. Etorphine (M-99)

  • 2000-4000 x morphine

  • Semisynthetic morphine

  • Combined with α2's

  • Large experience base in the field

  • Species and efficacy range widely known

3.4.1.5. Carfentanil

  • 10,000-20,000 x morphine

  • Very potent and rapid

  • Commonly combined with α2's

  • Wide margin of safety

3.4.1.6. A3080

  • Very, very rapid

  • Broad application

  • Shorter down time

  • 3 mg/ml

  • 20 μg/kg

3.4.2. Alpha-Two Agonists

Alpha-Two Agonists

Alpha-=Two Antagonists

Xylazine

Yohimbine (Yobine, Antagonil)

Detomidine

Tolazoline (Tolazine)

Medetomidine

Atipamezole (Antisedan)*

  • Central nervous system depressant with sedative, muscle relaxant, and analgesic properties

  • Ruminants, equids, suids, carnivores,birds

  • Xylazine, Detomidine (2-3x) Medetomidine (10x)

  • Combination with Ketamine or Opioids

3.4.2.1. Advantages

  • Non-controlled

  • Inexpensive

  • Rapid absorption

  • Analgesia

  • Good muscle relaxation

  • Reversible

3.4.2.2. Disadvantages

  • Initial hypertension followed by severe hypotension

  • Bradycardia, AV block

  • Prolonged effect if not antagonized

  • Hyperglycemia and glucosuria

  • Disrupts thermoregulation

  • Regurgitation in carnivores

3.4.2.3. Xylazine

  • Developed in the 1960's

  • Most commonly used with other opiates or dissociatives

3.4.2.4. Detomidine (Demosedan)

  • 2 - 3 x xylazine

  • 10 mg/ml

  • Used in combination with ketamine

  • Useful in equids if you can get enough into them!

3.4.3. Dissociatives (Cyclohexamines)

  • Carnivores, primates, birds

  • Negative effects are preventable with concurrent administration of tranquilizers

  • Ketamine - often used with α-2s, benzodiazepines, or acepromazine

  • Telazol - Tiletamine & Zolazepam advantage over Ketamine is its solubility and 2.5 times more potent but is not reversible

3.4.3.1. Clinical Signs

  • Multiple sites of action in CNS

  • Dysphoria

  • Salivation

  • Head weaving

  • Wide eyes, dilated pupils

  • Recumbency

3.4.3.2. Advantages

  • Rapidly absorbed: IM, IV, Oral

  • Maintenance of cardiovascular and respiratory function

  • Swallowing reflexes intact

  • Consistent, obvious effects

  • Animals appear unaware of human presence

3.4.3.3. Disadvantages

  • Excessive salivation

  • Seizure potential

  • Muscle rigidity

  • Hyperthermia

  • Painful IM injection

  • Rough recovery

  • Inability to reverse

3.4.4. Tranqilizers/Anxiolytics

3.4.4.1. Benzodiazepines (Diazepam, Midazolam, Zolazepam)

  • Enhance action of GABA

  • Skeletal muscle relaxant

  • Anticonvulsant

  • Sedation in small ruminants

  • Most effective when used in combo with opioids or cyclohexamines

3.4.4.2. Phenothiazines (Acepromazine)

  • No antagonist

  • Disrupts thermoregulation-avoid in high temperatures

  • Poor analgesic

  • Potentiates sedatives and anesthetics

3.4.5. Ancillary Drugs

3.4.5.1. Atropine Sulfate

  • Sympathetic stimulation

  • Reduces salivation, increases HR, dilates pupil

3.4.5.2. Doxapram Hydrochloride

  • Stimulates breathing

  • Occasionally used to increased metabolism of Ketamine or Telazol

  • Effectiveness questioned

4. CAPTURE EMERGENCIES

4.1. General Hazards

  • Trauma

    • Capture wounds (bandaged animals cannot be released)

    • Contusions

    • Abrasions

    • Lacerations

    • Fractures: necks and legs

  • Abortions

  • Malpositions

  • Tympanism

  • Asphyxiation

  • Seizures

  • Overdose

  • Renarcotization

This mountain lion (Felis concolor) was anesthesthetized via a dart and prepared for a surgical procedure on his stifle.
This mountain lion (Felis concolor) was anesthesthetized via a dart and prepared for a surgical procedure on his stifle.

4.2. Respiratory Depression or Arrest

Definition: Tissue hypoxia resulting in necrosis or damage caused by inadequate oxygenation of blood hemoglobin.

4.2.1. Causes

  • Drug-induced depression of respiratory center

  • Airway obstruction (nose/trunk/tracheal occlusion, edema/vomiting blocking airway)

  • Pressure of the diaphragm (bloat, intestinal contents)

4.2.2. Clinical Signs

  • Few or no respirations

  • Cyanosis

  • Noisy breathing

  • Oxygen saturation <70% for more than 2 min SO2

4.2.3. Treatment

  1. Cease further administration of immobilizing drugs

  2. Establish patent airway

  3. Begin artificial ventilation (mouth to mouth, mouth to nose; endotracheal tube/air sac tube; tracheotomy if laryngeal block)

  4. Administer 1-2 mg/kg doxapram (Dopram) IV

  5. Administer appropriate antagonist IV

4.2.4. Comments

  • Most common complication in wild animal immobilization

  • Do not panic

  • Up to 5 min before irreversible, hypoxic brain damage occurs

4.3. Hyperthermia

4.3.1. Causes

  • Metabolic heat from physical exertion

  • Heat absorption from environment (direct exposure to sun, confinement in poorly ventilated space)

  • Drug-induced alteration of thermoregulatory centers

  • Bacterial infection

4.3.2. Treatment

  1. Cease all further administration of immobilizing drugs

  2. Cool the animal (move out of direct sunlight)

    • Whole body immersion: most effective

    • Spray entire animal (groin & belly)

    • Pack ice or cold water bags on groin, head

    • Douse with isopropyl alcohol (rapid evaporation cools quicker)

    • Cold water edema

    • Cold lactated Ringer's solution IV or IP

  3. Administer appropriate antagonist IV

4.3.3. Comments

  • Severe hyperthermia (> 41 C) is a medical emergency

  • You must cool animal immediately

  • Always take rectal temperature ASAP & continue monitoring

4.4. Hypothermia/Frostbite

4.4.1. Causes

  • Drug-induced (decreased metabolism/endogenous heat production; alteration of thermoregulatory center

  • Cold ambient temperature

  • Loss of insulation (wet, soaked coat)

  • Oiled fur or feathers

  • Malnutrition (decreased fat)

  • Long recumbency (compression)

  • Inadequate circulation (shock, foothold trap)

4.4.2. Treatment

Warm the animal - ONLY Tx!! - Expect slow recovery

  • Containers of warm water

  • Blankets

  • Foam pads

  • Hand warmers

  • Body heat

  • Electric heat pads, lights

    1. Comments

  • Antagonism of immobilizing drug is not recommended. You may have to give more drugs until animal is warmed

  • Chilling below 24 C invariably results in death

4.5. Shock

Definition: Clinical syndrome characterized by ineffective blood perfusion of tissues resulting in cellular hypoxia. It is often seen in animals that underwent a stressful or strenuous capture.

4.5.1. Causes

  • Prolonged physical exertion

  • Prolonged physiological/psychological stress

  • Severe blood loss

4.5.2. Clinical Signs

  • Rapid heart rate

  • Low blood pressure (slow capillary refill)

  • Muscle weakness

  • Depressed sensorium (masked by drugs)

  • Hyperventilation

4.5.3. Treatment

  1. Cease all further administration of immobilizing drugs

  2. Administer 30 ml/kg Lactated Ringer's solution IV - correct hemorrhage

  3. Administer 5 mg/kg dexamethasone IV Prednisone at 10 mg/kg IV or methylprednisone at 20 mg/kg can also be used

  4. Assist ventilation if necessary

4.5.4. Comments

  • Many deaths are blamed to shock but definite diagnosis remains open

  • Like capture myopathy little can be done - PREVENTION is the key

4.6. Bloat/Tympanism

4.6.1. Treatment

  1. Correct body position (sternal or right recumbency)

  2. Pass stomach tube (48" long x 5/8" OD) - lubricate first, be sure not in trachea!!

  3. Insert large-bore needle into left flank to release gas 4. Administer appropriate antagonist drug

4.7. Aspiration/Vomiting

4.7.1. Causes

  • Drug-induced (Xylazine)

  • Stress, excitement

  • Head positioned lower than stomach/rumen

4.7.2. Clinical Signs

  • Gurgling sounds during respiration

  • Choking, gasping

  • Cyanosis

  • Presence of foreign material in larynx, trachea

  • Respiratory arrest

4.7.3. Treatment

  1. Cease all further administration of immobilizing drugs

  2. Clear airway

  3. Begin artificial ventilation if necessary

  4. Administer 1-2 mg/kg doxapram (Dopram) IV

  5. Administer long-term antibiotics to prevent pneumonia

4.7.4. Comments

  • Delayed death even after healthy capture and recovery - after days

  • Euthanasia may be considered in animals with large amounts of aspiration

4.8. Seizures/Convulsions

Definition: Transient disturbance of cerebral function characterized by a violent, involuntary contraction or series of contractions of the voluntary muscles

4.8.1. Causes

  • Drug-induced (ketamine or ketamine combinations)

  • Trauma

  • Hypoglycemia

4.8.2. Clinical Signs

  • Uncontrolled muscle spasms- whole body spasms

  • Rigid extension of limbs

  • Mouth gaping

4.8.3. Treatment

  • Administer 10 mg diazepam (Valium) IV slowly

  • Monitor temperature - endogenous heat, keep below 41 C

4.8.4. Comments

  • Most caused by ketamine

  • Do not harm animal but disrupt handling

  • Can lead to hyperthermia

4.9. Cardiac Arrest

Definition: Loss of effective cardiac function resulting in cessation of circulation

4.9.1. Causes

  • Drug-induced

  • Hypoxia -respiratory failure

  • Acid-base imbalance

  • Electrolyte imbalance - hyper/hypokalemia, hypocalcemia

  • Autonomic nervous system imbalance - increased sympathetic/ parasympathetic tone

  • Hypothermia

4.9.2. Clinical Signs

  • Weak or absent heart sounds or pulse

  • Poor capillary refill (> 2 sec)

  • Cyanosis

  • Increased respiratory rate, abnormal pattern or apnea

  • Dilated pupils

  • Cold skin

  • Loss of consciousness

4.9.3. Treatment

  1. Cease all further administration of immobilizing drugs

  2. Make sure that the animal can breathe -artificial respiration/doxapram

  3. Begin external cardiac massage - press at one release at one with 60-100 cycles/min - detect femoral pulse

  4. Inject 0.2 mg/kg of 1:10,000 epinephrine IV or IC and continue massage. Insert needle between 4th and 6th ribs, above and behind elbow. NOTE: many epinephrine concentrations come as 1:1,000; dilute each ml with 9 ml of physiological saline or lactated Ringer's

  5. If no response to the above, inject 0.1 ml/kg calcium chloride solution (10% or 100 mg/ml) IV or IC

  6. If still no response, repeat epinephrine and calcium chloride doses plus inject 10-20 mEq sodium bicarbonate IV or IC

4.9.4. Comments

  • CRT is method to assess peripheral perfusion and cardiac function

  • This is just a field method to Dx cardiac arrest- in practice a very complicated situation

  • Many cardiac arrests arrive from metabolic disturbances due to physical exertion or stress

  • Need ECG- one available for field situations

4.10. Dehydration

4.10.1. Causes

  • Decreased water intake

  • Hyperthermia- loss by transpiration

  • Fever

  • Chronic vomiting

  • Wound drainage

  • Polyuria

4.10.2. Clinical Signs

  • Skin lacks pliability

  • Mouth, gums dry

  • Weak pulse

  • Depressed sensorium

  • Signs of shock

4.10.3. Treatment

  1. Cease all further administration of immobilizing drugs

  2. Determine the volume deficit (4-6-8-10 rule)

    1. Loss of 4% in body weight is determined by fluid loss or history

    2. Loss of 6% obvious fluid deficits – mouth mucosa red and dry

    3. Loss of *% severe fluid loss – weak pulse, depression

    4. Loss of 10% life threatening – shock

  3. Administer fluid therapy

4.10.4. Comments

Quickest filed Dx – pinch skin

4.11. Capture Myopathy

Definition: CM is a complex condition affecting animals undergone a stressful or strenuous capture or handling. The pathophysiology of CM is complex (see Williams & Thorne, 1998).

4.11.1. Causes

  • Prolonged physical exertion

  • Prolonged physiological and/or psychological stress

4.11.2. Clinical Signs

  • Ataxia, weakness

  • Paresis or paralysis

  • Myoglobinuria

  • Death

4.11.3. Treatment

  1. Administer 5 meq/kg sodium bicarbonate IV. Administer slowly (4-5 ml/min) to avoid cardiac arrhythmias

4.11.4. Comments

  • Pathogenesis not completely understood, treatment difficult and unsuccessful

  • Lactic acidosis a consistent finding

  • Restoration of normal pH in blood is thought to ameliorate pathology

  • Clinical signs may appear in hours (acute form) or may take several days to develop (ataxic-myoglobinuric/rupture muscle syndromes)

  • Serum chemistries severely altered

  • CM reported in all animal groups but more common in ungulates

  • Vitamin E and Selenium deficiency may be a predisposing factor

4.12. Human Safety

4.12.1. Human Exposure to Chemical Restraint Agents

  • Cyclohexamines - Behavioral toxicity

  • Xylazine - Respiratory support

  • Opioids - Coma and possible death Naltrexone IV

4.12.2. Animal-related

  • Never work alone

  • Danger zones

  • Room to work

  • Cameras

  • Limit number of people

4.12.3. Human Exposure

  • CPR and first aid training

  • Do not handle immobilization drugs casually

  • Identify and inform emergency clinics

  • Always wear gloves when loading darts and syringes

  • Hard case for loaded or used darts

  • Used sharps and vials in biohazards container

4.12.4. Human First Aid

  • Note time of exposure

  • Note drug and amount

  • Notify others and call 911

  • Wash exposed area thoroughly

  • Put patient in shade and loosen restrictive clothing

  • Take patient to hospital

4.13. EUTHANASIA

  • Plan ahead

  • AVMA Euthanasia Standards

  • IV Barbiturates

  • CO2 or CO

  • Penetrating captive bolt pistol

  • Gunshot

5. References and Resources

5.1. Texts and Articles

The Capture and Care Manual : capture, care, accommodation and transportation of wild African animals. ed. by Andrew A. McKenzie. Wildlife Decision Support Services CC. 1993.

Clark, R. K. and D. A. Jessup (eds.). 1992. Wildlife Restraint Series. International Wildlife Veterinary Services, Inc., Salinas, California.

Fowler, Murray E. Restraint and handling of Wild and Domestic Animals. 2nd ed. Iowa State University Press. 1995.

Haigh, Jerry, C. Opioids in zoological medicine. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, V. 21 (4), 1990, pp. 391-413.

Jalanka, Harry, H. the use of medetomidine, medetomidine-ketamine combinations, and atipamezole in nondomestic mammals: a review. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, v. 21 (3), 1990, pp. 259-282.

Kreeger, Terry J. Handbook of Wildlife Chemical Immobilization: international edition. Fort Collins, CO : Wildlife Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 2002

Lewis, John C. M. Field use of isoflurane and iar anesthetic equipment in wildlife. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 303-311.

Nielsen, Leon. Chemical Immobilization of Wild and Exotic Animals. Iowa State University Press, 1999.

Williams, Elizabeth S. and E. Thomas Thorne. Exertional myopathy (capture myopathy). Chapter 16. In: Noninfectious Diseases of Wildlife. A. Fairbrother, et al. (ed.). Iowa State University Press, 1998.

5.2. Websites

US Drug Enforcement Agency (incl. Schedule of Controlled Substances) http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/index.htm

Zoological Restraint and Anesthesia, Heard D. (Ed.). an online text in the IVIS http://www.ivis.org/

5.3. Advanced Courses in Restraint

International Wildlife Veterinary Services, 1850 N. Main, Salinas, CA 93906 Wildlife Veterinary Resources, Mark R. Johnson, DVM, (406) 586-4624 wildlifevet@gomontana.com

Safe-Capture International, Keith Amass (608) 767-3071 www.safecapture.com