Tufts OpenCourseware
Search
Author: Joann Lindenmayer, DVM,MPH
Policy and Programs Policy and Programs
EPHS #5:  Develop Policies and Plans That Support Ind. and Comm. Health Efforts EPHS #5: Develop Policies and Plans That Support Ind. and Comm. Health Efforts
Objectives Objectives
Outline Outline
Policy:  Definition Policy: Definition
Types of Policies Types of Policies
How is Policy Made? How is Policy Made?
Two Examples of Policy Making Two Examples of Policy Making
Evidence-Based Public Health (EBPH) Evidence-Based Public Health (EBPH)
Why is EBPH So Important? Why is EBPH So Important?
The Importance of Data The Importance of Data
What IS Evidence? What IS Evidence?
What is NOT Evidence? What is NOT Evidence?
Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM)
EBM EBM
EBM (continued) EBM (continued)
Clinical Presentation in a Dog Clinical Presentation in a Dog
EBM – Step 1 EBM – Step 1
EBM – Step 2 EBM – Step 2
EBM – Step 3 EBM – Step 3
EBM – Step 4 EBM – Step 4
EBM – Step 5 EBM – Step 5
Obstacles to Using EBM Obstacles to Using EBM
EBM EBM
What is Evidence-Based Public Health? What is Evidence-Based Public Health?
Evidence-Based Public Health Evidence-Based Public Health
Evidence-Based Population Health Evidence-Based Population Health
Evidence-Based Population Health Evidence-Based Population Health
EBM vs. EBPH EBM vs. EBPH
EBPH Types of Evidence EBPH Types of Evidence
When the Evidence Is Not Enough When the Evidence Is Not Enough
Key Characteristics of EBPH Decision Making Key Characteristics of EBPH Decision Making
Strength of the Evidence Base for Population Health Strength of the Evidence Base for Population Health
Are These Concepts Applicable to Other Animal Populations? Are These Concepts Applicable to Other Animal Populations?
In what circumstances are these concepts applicable? In what circumstances are these concepts applicable?
In what circumstances are these concepts applicable? In what circumstances are these concepts applicable?
Context for Policy Development:  Authorization and Allocation Context for Policy Development: Authorization and Allocation
Context for Policy Development:  Funding Context for Policy Development: Funding
Context for Policy Development:  Funding Context for Policy Development: Funding
Context for Policy Development:  Funding Context for Policy Development: Funding
Context for Policy Development:  Funding Context for Policy Development: Funding
Context for Policy Development:  Funding Context for Policy Development: Funding
Context for Policy Development:  Funding Context for Policy Development: Funding
Administrative Policy:  The Case for and Against Cefquinome Administrative Policy: The Case for and Against Cefquinome
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
FDA Organization FDA Organization
Organization of FDA’s Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) Organization of FDA’s Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM)
Cefquinome Cefquinome
History History
History History
History History
Reaction Reaction
The Washington Post The Washington Post
The New York Times The New York Times
Background Background
FDA Perspective FDA Perspective
Public Health Perspective Public Health Perspective
Public Health Perspective Public Health Perspective
WHO WHO
Industry Perspective Industry Perspective
Animal Health Institute Animal Health Institute
Large Animal Veterinarian Perspective Large Animal Veterinarian Perspective
Overview of Issues: Use of Antimicrobials in Animals Overview of Issues: Use of Antimicrobials in Animals
Introduction Introduction
Facts about Antibiotics in Animals and the Impact on Resistance (FAAIR) Project, 1999 Facts about Antibiotics in Animals and the Impact on Resistance (FAAIR) Project, 1999
Antimicrobial Use for Animal Growth Promotion Antimicrobial Use for Animal Growth Promotion
Regulatory Framework for Approval of Veterinary Antimicrobials and Feed Additives in the US Regulatory Framework for Approval of Veterinary Antimicrobials and Feed Additives in the US
Regulatory Framework for Approval of Veterinary Antimicrobials and Feed Additives in the US (2) Regulatory Framework for Approval of Veterinary Antimicrobials and Feed Additives in the US (2)
Regulatory Framework for Approval of Veterinary Antimicrobials and Feed Additives in the US (3) Regulatory Framework for Approval of Veterinary Antimicrobials and Feed Additives in the US (3)
Animal Health Product Manufacturing and Distribution Networks Animal Health Product Manufacturing and Distribution Networks
Animal Health Product Manufacturing and Distribution Networks (2) Animal Health Product Manufacturing and Distribution Networks (2)
Animal Health Product Manufacturing and Distribution Networks (3) Animal Health Product Manufacturing and Distribution Networks (3)
Existing Estimates of Animal Antimicrobial Use in the US Existing Estimates of Animal Antimicrobial Use in the US
Existing Estimates of Animal Antimicrobial Use in the US (2) Existing Estimates of Animal Antimicrobial Use in the US (2)
Existing Estimates of Animal Antimicrobial Use in the US (3) Existing Estimates of Animal Antimicrobial Use in the US (3)
Additional Sources for Animal Use Data in the US Additional Sources for Animal Use Data in the US
Recommendations from International Expert Groups Recommendations from International Expert Groups
Human Use Data Collection Systems in the US Human Use Data Collection Systems in the US
FDA:  Center for Veterinary Medicine Guidance #152 for Industry FDA: Center for Veterinary Medicine Guidance #152 for Industry
Guidance #152 Guidance #152
Criteria for Evaluation Criteria for Evaluation
Scope Scope
Risk Analysis Methodology Risk Analysis Methodology
Definitions Definitions
FDA Concerns FDA Concerns
Data Sources Data Sources
Hazard Characterization Hazard Characterization
Relative Importance of the Drug in Human Medicine Relative Importance of the Drug in Human Medicine
Relative Importance of the Drug in Human Medicine Relative Importance of the Drug in Human Medicine
Classification of Drugs Classification of Drugs
Classification of Drugs Classification of Drugs
Classification of Drugs Classification of Drugs
Qualitative Risk Assessment Qualitative Risk Assessment
Release Assessment Release Assessment
Release Assessment Release Assessment
Summarizing the Release Assessment Summarizing the Release Assessment
Exposure Assessment Exposure Assessment
Exposure Assessment Exposure Assessment
Per Capita Consumption Data for Meat, 2001 Per Capita Consumption Data for Meat, 2001
Food Commodity Contamination Food Commodity Contamination
Commodity Contamination Data for Salmonella, 2001 Commodity Contamination Data for Salmonella, 2001
Summarizing Exposure Assessment:  an Example Summarizing Exposure Assessment: an Example
Consequence Assessment Consequence Assessment
Risk Estimation Risk Estimation
Possible Risk Estimation Outcomes Possible Risk Estimation Outcomes
Risk Management Considerations Risk Management Considerations
Risk Management Considerations Risk Management Considerations
Risk Management Considerations Risk Management Considerations
Hurricane Katrina, August 2005 Hurricane Katrina, August 2005
Hurricane Katrina Hurricane Katrina
Background and History Background and History
Outcome:  Human Outcome: Human
Rapid Community Needs Assessment after Hurricane Katrina Rapid Community Needs Assessment after Hurricane Katrina
Outcome:  Animals Outcome: Animals
Hurricane Katrina:  Response Hurricane Katrina: Response
Hurricane Katrina:  Legal and Administrative Barriers to Evaluation, Rescue and Treatment Efforts Hurricane Katrina: Legal and Administrative Barriers to Evaluation, Rescue and Treatment Efforts
Hurricane Katrina: Legal and Administrative Barriers (2) Hurricane Katrina: Legal and Administrative Barriers (2)
State Administrative Responses State Administrative Responses
State Legislative Initiatives:  Louisiana State Legislative Initiatives: Louisiana
State Legislative Initiatives:  Louisiana (2) State Legislative Initiatives: Louisiana (2)
State Legislative Initiatives:  Louisiana (3) State Legislative Initiatives: Louisiana (3)
Legislative Initiatives in Other States Legislative Initiatives in Other States
Legislative Initiatives:  Federal Legislative Initiatives: Federal
Legislative Initiatives:  Federal Legislative Initiatives: Federal
PETS Act (Public Law 109-308, 109th Congress) PETS Act (Public Law 109-308, 109th Congress)
PETS Act (Public Laws 109-308, 109th Congress) PETS Act (Public Laws 109-308, 109th Congress)