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Authors: Soledad Cepeda, M.D.,Ph.D., Daniel B. Carr

1. Content and Objectives

  • Epidemiology, natural history, and impact of back pain

  • Predictors for developing chronic low back pain

  • Diagnosis of chronic low back pain

  • Outcome assessment in chronic low back pain

  • Conservative treatments

  • Role of opioid therapy for chronic low back pain

  • Role of surgical treatment

2. Required Readings

  • Chapter 9 In: Cepeda MS, Cousins MJ, Carr DB. Fast Facts: Chronic Pain. Oxford: Health Press; 2007. (Required text)

  • Roland M, Morris Rm. A study of the natural history of low-back pain. Part II: development of guidelines for trials of treatment in primary care. Spine 1983;8:145-50.

  • Waddell G, McCulloch JA, et al. Nonorganic physical signs in low-back pain. Spine 1980;5:117-25.

  • Yang KH, King AI. Mechanism of facet load transmission as a hypothesis for low-back pain. Spine 1984;9:557-65.

  • McCarron RF, Wimpee MW, et al. The inflammatory effect of nucleus pulposus. A possible element in the pathogenesis of low-back pain. Spine 1987;12:760-4.

  • Benzon HT. Epidural steroid injections for low back pain and lumbosacral radiculopathy. Pain 1986;24:277-95.

  • Shih C, Lin GY, et al. Lumbar zygapophyseal joint injections in patients with chronic lower back pain. J Chin Med Assoc 2005;68:59-64.