1. Content and Objectives
Epidemiology, natural history, and impact of back pain
Predictors for developing chronic low back pain
Diagnosis of chronic low back pain
Outcome assessment in chronic low back pain
Role of opioid therapy for chronic low back pain
Role of surgical treatment
2. Required Readings
Chapter 9 In: Cepeda MS, Cousins MJ, Carr DB. Fast Facts: Chronic Pain. Oxford: Health Press; 2007. (Required text)
Roland M, Morris Rm. A study of the natural history of low-back pain. Part II: development of guidelines for trials of treatment in primary care. Spine 1983;8:145-50.
Waddell G, McCulloch JA, et al. Nonorganic physical signs in low-back pain. Spine 1980;5:117-25.
Yang KH, King AI. Mechanism of facet load transmission as a hypothesis for low-back pain. Spine 1984;9:557-65.
McCarron RF, Wimpee MW, et al. The inflammatory effect of nucleus pulposus. A possible element in the pathogenesis of low-back pain. Spine 1987;12:760-4.
Benzon HT. Epidural steroid injections for low back pain and lumbosacral radiculopathy. Pain 1986;24:277-95.
Shih C, Lin GY, et al. Lumbar zygapophyseal joint injections in patients with chronic lower back pain. J Chin Med Assoc 2005;68:59-64.