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Authors: Soledad Cepeda, M.D.,Ph.D., Daniel B. Carr

1. Content and Objectives

  • Mechanism of action of opioids, NSAIDS and adjuvants

  • Efficacy of opioids, NSAIDS and adjuvants

  • Analgesic equivalence

2. Required Readings

  • McNicol E, Strassels S, Goudas L, Lau J, Carr D. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Alone or combined With Opioids, for Cancer Pain: A Systematic Review. J Clin Oncol 2004;22:1975-1992.

  • Gammaitoni AR, Fine P, Alvarez N, McPherson ML, Bergmark S. Clinical application of opioid equianalgesic data. Clin J Pain 2003;19:286-297.

  • Couzin J. Clinical trials. Halt of Celebrex study threatens drug's future, other trials. Science 2004;306(5705):2170.

  • Dworkin RH, Backonja M, Rowbotham MC, Allen RR, et al. Advances in neuropathic pain: diagnosis, mechanisms, and treatment recommendations. Arch Neurol 2003;60:1524-34.

  • Cepeda MS, Carr DB, et al. Comparison of morphine, ketorolac, and their combination for postoperative pain: results from a large, randomized, double blind trial. Anesthesiology 2005;103:1225-1232.