Important Note

Tufts ended funding for its Open Courseware initiative in 2014. We are now planning to retire this site on June 30, 2018. Content will be available for Tufts contributors after that date. If you have any questions about this please write to edtech@tufts.edu.

Tufts OpenCourseware
Search
Authors: Kathleen Merrigan, Ph.D., William Lockeretz, Ph.D.

Readings

  • Metcalf, R.L. Insecticides in pest management. In: Metcalf, R.L., and Luckmann, W.H. (eds.) Introduction to Insect Pest Management, 3rd ed. 1995.
  • National Research Council. The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture. Chapter 2 (part). 2000.

Key Questions

Insecticides in Pest Management

  • What has been the general trend of insecticide production and usage (considering their quantity and efficacy) over time in the US?
  • What are the major crop groups with high insecticide usage?
  • What are the advantages of using insecticides in agriculture?
  • How does decisionmaking using ETL levels of insecticides vary when the prices of the crop and insecticides are also considered?
  • What are the disadvantages of injudicious use of insecticides?
  • What is the difference between multiple and cross resistance? Which type of resistance is of greater concern?
  • What are the different kinds of resistance developed by insects?
  • What are some of the reasons for development of insecticidal resistance?
  • What are some of the principles of Integrated Resistance Management?
  • What are the reasons for pest resurgence?
  • How does one manage the problem of pest resurgence?
  • Why do decreases in the populations of non-target species because of pesticide sprays increase crop damage due to pests?
  • Why are honey bees especially susceptible to insecticidal applications?
  • What are the management practices that minimize the adverse effect of insecticides on wildlife?
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of pesticide persistence?
  • Which category of pesticides has been most threatening to human health?
  • What are the management practices that minimize the adverse effect of insecticides on human health?
  • What are the major principles governing pesticide use in IPM programs?
  • What is biorational strategy for pest management? What type of chemicals are used in this?
  • Why is broadcasting of dusts and sprays inefficient?
  • Would the authors support - Routine application of pesticides for pest management? - The idea that 100 % pest control is possible?
  • Should the farmer always go by the dosages prescribed on pesticide labels for pest control?
  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of seed treatment with pesticides?
  • What criteria are considered for deriving pesticide management ratings for insecticides?
  • What three animals are considered for determining the toxic effects of pesticides on the environment?
  • What is the significance of pesticide management ratings?
  • What are the different kinds of pest control we find in the case study on IPM in alfalfa?

The Future Role of Pesticides in US Agriculture

  • What are some of the outcomes that have been estimated from a ‘no pesticide’ scenario in the US?
  • According to some of the researchers, how do consumers benefit from pesticide usage in agriculture?
  • How does the committee account for the costs and benefits of using pesticides in households?
  • Which crop categories account for maximum application of herbicides, insecticides and fungicides in the US?
  • Which is the most pesticide intensive-crop in the US?
  • After increasing between the years 1940 and 1980, pesticide usage in the US decreased until 1990, and then increased again. What are the reasons?
  • Why is it difficult to measure pesticide-related productivity?
  • Provide examples of short-term and long-term farm and regional level substitute for pesticides.
  • How does availability of substitutes affect pesticide productivity?
  • What are the different methods for estimation of pesticide productivity and their main features?
  • How does customer preference lead to increase/decrease of pesticide application?
  • What are the reasons for application of preventive pesticide sprays by the farmers?
  • What is the relationship between pesticide application and income related risks to the farmers?
  • Why do the authors state that development of resistance to pesticides in pests is more of a rule than an exception?
  • Are chemical pesticides the only reason for resistance development in pests?
  • Why is resistance development to herbicides slower compared to other pesticides?
  • For which group of pesticides is the development of resistance the highest? Why?
  • How does the duration of pest life cycle influence resistance development?
  • How do dispersal and migration of susceptible individuals of a pest species influence resistance development?
  • At what stage of pesticide manufacture and use is the risk of exposure the greatest to human beings?
  • Which Federal Act protects workers from occupational risks due to exposure to pesticides?
  • What are some of the general guidelines of Worker Protection Standards (WPS)?
  • What are the reasons for declining levels of pesticide residues on food items?