- National Research Council. Regulating Pesticides in Food: The Delaney Paradox. Chapter 2 and Appendix A.
- National Research Council. Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children. Executive Summary and Chapter 4. 1993.
- USEPA. Highlights of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996.
- Congressional Research Service. 95016: Pesticide Policy Issues. 1996.
- Schierow, L.-J. Pesticide Residue Regulation: Analysis of Food Quality Protection Act Implementation. 2002.
- USEPA. Candidates for Reregistration Decisions. 2003.
- Code of Federal Regulations. Protection of Environment. pp. 340-343. 2002.
- USEPA. Captan. 2002.
- USEPA Office of Pesticide Programs. Summary of Organophosphate Pesticide Usage.
Regulating Pesticides in Food: The Delaney Paradox
- Which federal agency is involved in pesticide registration?
- Which federal acts govern pesticide regulation?
- Why is FIFRA considered a ‘balancing” Act?
- How do FIFRA and FFDCA differ in regulating pesticides?
- How do sections 408 and 409 of FFDCA differ in their regulation of pesticides?
- What are the various steps involved in pesticide regulation?
- EPA tests each pesticide that is released in the market. T/F?
- What information is contained on the labels?
- What is Delaney Clause? Under which Act was this covered?
- Which section of FFDCA allowed for enforcement of the Delaney Clause?
- What type of data is required for tolerance setting of pesticides?
- How are tolerance levels set under sections 408 and 409 of FFDCA?
- How was Delaney Clause interpreted by the FDA and EPA?
- How are NOEL and ADI of pesticides calculated?
- What are the assumptions while deriving ADI?
- What is the significance of TMRC?
- What are the assumptions involved in the calculation of TMRC?
- In most cases, does EPA consider the benefits of pesticides before granting tolerance levels?
- How is tolerance level set for oncogenic pesticides under section 409 of FFDCA?
- What is reregistration of pesticides? Why is it done?
- What is the significance of the constituent policy and de minimis interpretation of the Delaney clause by the FDA?
- What are the inconsistencies in the present regulatory system according to the authors?
- Should pesticide residues on raw agricultural commodities and processed foods be regulated based on the same standards?
- What is the Delaney Paradox?
Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children
- What is meant by qualitative and quantitative differences in toxicity of pesticide between children and adults?
- What is the limitation in testing protocols which hinders extrapolation of data and information on pesticide toxicity to children?
- Is the amount of pesticide exposure for children different, when compared to that of adults? If so, why?
- What is the central thesis of the reading?
- What are the recommendations of the committee?
Methods for Toxicity Testing: Kids Study
- What are some of the important factors considered when using animals for setting pesticide tolerances?
- What is the rate of approval of pesticides by EPA? What is the major reason for rejection?
Highlights of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996
- What is the significance of healthbased safety standards for pesticide residue?
- Are children better protected under the new law?
- How does the law consider costs and benefits of pesticides?
- What time frame did FQPA set for reregistration of pesticides?
- What new information is sought for any new pesticide registration?
- How does the Act enhance enforcement power of the FDA?
- What is the role of the states in pesticide regulation?
- What does the Act propose regarding reregistration and registration renewal of pesticides?
- What does the Act propose with reference to the categories of safer, minor use and anti-microbial pesticides?
Congressional Research Service
- What are the main features of PL 104-170, Food Quality Protection Act of 1996?
- In which sector of the US is the use of pesticide the maximum?
- For what crops are pesticide applications the maximum?
- Which agencies are involved in inspecting food and enforcing residue tolerances? How are the responsibilities shared?
- How is funding made available for pesticide reregistration?
- According to the EPA, what is one of the major reasons for high costs of reregistration?
- What are the main issues surrounding the special review of atrazine?
- How does the EPA respond if a pesticide is found to be hazardous?
- What conditions would lead to a pesticide being cancelled? How long would this process take?
- What would happen to the tolerance level established for a pesticide if the pesticide were to be cancelled?
- What is the reason for the voluntary cancellation of some of the minor use pesticides by the manufacturers? What effect does this have on American agriculture?
- How does the act support agriculture that is dependent on minor use pesticides?
- What does Worker Protection Standards (WPS) refer to?
- Which interest groups support and which oppose WPS enforcement by EPA?
- Which act governs the export of pesticides from the US?
- What is the relevance of the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) system to the export of pesticides?
- Can unregistered pesticides be exported?
- Should pesticides that are denied registration or reregistration by the EPA be allowed to be exported?
- Which federal act governs the pesticide residue levels on imported food items?
- What percentage of agricultural products consumed in the US is imported?
- What is the FDA’s strategy for inspecting imported food items for pesticide residues? What are the arguments for and against this strategy?
- How was the Delaney Clause modified under the Act?
- What are the arguments for and against Federal preemption of states setting up tolerance levels for pesticides?
Pesticide Residue Regulation: Analysis of Food Quality Protection Act Implementation
- What is the criticism against the EPA despite its stating that the schedule for reregistration of pesticides is being met?
- How do different stakeholders differ regarding the data that should be considered by the EPA for implementation of the Act?
- Which group of pesticides has been prioritized by the EPA for reregistration? Why?
Candidates for Reregistration Decisions
What is the difference among the following terms: Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED), Interim Reregistration Eligibility Decision (IRED) and Tolerance Reassessment Eligibility Decision (TRED)?