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Tufts OpenCourseware
Authors: Kathleen Merrigan, Ph.D., William Lockeretz, Ph.D.


  1. Lo and behold, you find yourself at a cocktail party. The woman next to you declares, in a rather loud and tipsy voice, that she would never eat those little meatball appetizers because she fears E coli 0157H contamination. The man next to her responds that he’d much prefer the meatballs over the organic salad mix which was likely produced using raw manure. The tie-breaker waltzes over to the table – Acting FDA Commissioner Les Crawford. In a conspiratorial whisper, Les confides, don’t worry, it’s all been irradiated.

    1. What is invalid about the woman’s protest?

    2. What is invalid about the man’s protest?

    3. What about Les’s irradiation claim?