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Author: Paul Waldau

Starting in the 1960s, humane organizations and governments began to fund studies in alternative methods. European governments, especially, have invested considerable resources, setting up major research efforts such as the European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (set up in 1992 by the European Commission). Even in the U.S., where governmental interest has been comparatively low, there is funding for the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (http://www.niehs.nih.gov/ and the Interagency Coordinating Committee for Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM). Industry supports the Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing at Johns Hopkins University (http://altweb.jhsph.edu/ Additionally, educational institutions and nonprofit groups are making major contributions as well.

All this effort has yielded a variety of means for reducing animal use. We will discuss the current issues being raised in this important area, as well as future possibilities.

1. Readings

2. Reflection Journal Assignment

Due at beginning of next session

Looking Back —This question again asks you to think about distinctions among

  • roles that can be taken by individual veterinarians,

  • roles that can be taken by veterinary education, and,

  • roles that can be taken by the veterinary profession as a whole.

What role(s), if any, do you think veterinary medicine has in fostering the use of alternatives in veterinary education and in research generally?

Looking Forward —This question also asks you to think about distinctions among roles that can be taken by

  • individual veterinarians,

  • veterinary education, and,

  • the veterinary profession as a whole.

What role(s), if any, do you think each has in fostering the new discipline of shelter medicine? (The assigned readings will give you a general idea of what shelter medicine is.)