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Author: Amelia Virostko

1. Introduction

  1. Double-stranded DNA core with protein plug
  2. Icosahedral nucleocapsid
  3. Outer lipoprotein envelope that mediates tropism and protects against degradative enzymes in the extracellular environment
  4. Immature particles bud through the inner nuclear membrane of the host cell
  5. Transcription carried out by host cell enzymes

2. Herpes Simplex Type 1

  1. Causes cold sores and fever blisters
  2. Virus ascends CN V by currents in cytoplasm and virus remains latent in nerve cells of the trigeminal ganglion enabling the virus to survive the immune response
    1. Stress, sun exposure, etc. can lead to reactivation
  3. HSV encephalitis: massive necrosis of the temporoparietal lobe

3. Herpes Simplex Type 2

  1. Causes genital herpes
  2. 20-30% of people are infected
    1. 80% are asymptomatic
  3. Women suffer from worse infection because they can develop internal lesions
  4. 90% recurrent disease within 12 months causing 3-5 outbreaks/year at first
  5. Treat with acyclovir, famcyclovir, or valacyclovir

4. Varicella-zoster Virus

  1. Causes shingles and chicken pox
    1. Chicken pox are most dense on the trunk and develop from macule to papule to vesicle to pustule
    2. Pruritic rash that spreads by aerosolysis from scratching
    3. Virus spreads before anyone knows they are sick
    4. Can develop chicken pox from shingles exposure
  2. Can lead to necrotizing fasciitis
  3. Teratogenic during pregnancy causing limb hypoplasia
  4. Vaccine developed in 1995
  5. Shingles does not cross the midline because only the dermatome innvervated by that nerve is affected by latent infection
    1. Treat with antivirals and steroids

5. Cytomegalovirus

  1. Most common vertically transmitted virus producing microcephaly, deafness, and blindness
  2. Common cause of infection in transplant recipients
  3. Can cause mononucleosis syndrome
  4. Transmitted vertically, in child care setting, sexually, transfusion of blood products, or donor organs

6. Epstein-Barr Virus

  1. Causes mononucleosis manifest by fever, sore throat, lymphadenopathy
    1. Self-limited disease
  2. More common in developed world because acquired later in life, producing a syndrome of mononucleosis as opposed to general respiratory infection as children in developing nations
  3. Infection begins in epithelial cells of buccal mucosa or parotid gland and gains access to B cells in lymphoid tissue of pharynx

7. Human Herpes Virus 6 and 7

  1. Causes roseola
  2. Infects children less than 5 years of age

8. Human Herpes Virus 8

  1. Causes Kaposi sarcoma

9. Simian Herpes B Virus