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Tufts OpenCourseware
Author: Amelia Virostko

1. HIV Transmission

  1. RBC or clotting factor transfusions
  2. Sharing needles
  3. Sexual transmission - heterosexual or homosexual
  4. Vertical transmission from mother to fetus

2. Epidemiology of HIV

  1. Developed world initial infection spread through homosexual males, IVDU
  2. In resource poor settings, transmission is mainly through heterosexual sex, vertical transmission, or IVDU
  3. In 2000, AIDS was the 7th leading cause of death in the US C. Significant increasing incidence in percentage of AIDS deaths in females
  4. Prevalance in Caucasians decreasing, Blacks increasing, Hispanics and Asians remain stable
  5. 42 million individuals worldwide estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS as of 2002
  6. 5 million newly infected adults and children in 2002
  7. 3.1 million estimated adult and child deaths from HIV/AIDS during 2002

3. Opportunistic Infections

  1. . Early phase when CD4 count greather than 200
    1. TB
    2. Candida
    3. Cryptococcus
    4. Histoplasmosis
    5. Recurrent bacterial infection
  2. Late phase when CD4 count is less than 200
    1. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia - give primary prophylaxis
    2. Chronic cryptosporidia
  3. Late phase when CD4 count drops below 100
    1. Toxoplasmosis
    2. Cytomegalovirus infection - secondary prophylaxis recommended
    3. Mycobacterium avian-intracellulaire

4. AIDS Defining Conditions

  1. Recurrent bacterial infections
  2. Candidal infection of esophagus, trachea, bronchi
  3. Disseminated coccidiomycosis, histoplasmosis
  4. Extrapulmonary cryptococcis
  5. Chronic cryptosporidiosis or isospora
  6. Cytomegalovirus
  7. Persisten mucocutaneous herpes infection
  8. HIV encephalopathy H. Kaposi’s sarcoma
  9. Primary lymphoma of the brain
  10. Non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphoma
  11. Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia in children
  12. Cervical carcinoma in-situ
  13. Disseminated Mycobacterial infection (non-TB)
  14. Extrapulmonary TB
  15. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
  16. Recurrent Salmonella infection
  17. Toxoplasmosis of the brain